Saturday, August 31, 2019
Trade and merchants play a major role in Christianity and Islam from their origins to the 1500Ã¢â¬â¢s, and even though both had similar attributes yet differed as well. Christians and Islam both had a negative outlook, both had their religious viewpoints, as well as both changed their views towards trade. Despite this, Christianity began to open up to trade, even tolerating it, while Muslims became stricter on merchants and trade. Furthermore, Both Islam and Christianity had a negative attitudes for instance, in the Bible, Jesus preaches to his disciples how a rich man will never reach heaven. This is due to their behavior, for merchants are greedy and lying people whose only content is to get rich, which goes against ChristianityÃ¢â¬â¢s belief. Moreover, Thomas Aquinas explains how unfair and unjust merchants are for they price their goods higher than what the product actually cost. By the tone of the document as well as how he explains trade and its problems show his dislike. L ikewise Ibn Khaldun describes merchants as weak, and disgusting men and how they negatively affect the government. His tone is harsher however, which indicates his anger towards the merchants. Merchants constants rip-off of the people by selling their goods at a high price as well s giving their all their goods to those who pay more. The Islamic Court in Ankara had to deal with a case in which merchants would give all their cotton to a single person, if they pay extra high price in addition to the merchantÃ¢â¬â¢s high prices. Document seven contains quotes from that of the people who have complained about the merchants. Both Christianity and Islam share the same pessimistic attitude towards merchants and trade because of their behavior and how they sell their goods. Anyways, I would have like to see a document from a merchant, it would have help me better indicate if merchants were really sneaky and unfair as spoken in the documents given. Some looked to the ChristianityÃ¢â¬â¢s and IslamÃ¢â¬â¢s beliefs, to determine their view on merchants and trade for both religions impacted all their followers. In the Bible, Jesus says that no rich man will ever reach heaven. The small passage comes from the bible, which heavily every Christians view. Which is also why he emphasized how the quote from the bible and how i t fit into the situation. The Muslim QurÃ¢â¬â¢an also circled around honesty and truthfulness which the Muslims and Muslim merchants had to follow if they wanted to reach paradise. Thomas Aquinas who was also heavily influence by Christianity, and its bible, for he states a line out of the bible. He indicates the bibleÃ because he knows that adding the bible would persuade many of the Christians which was his intended target audience. Reginald, a monk of Durham also says explains the life of Godric and how he became a successful merchant, only to become tired of it and soon devoted himself to God giving away all his possessions to the poor. ReginaldÃ¢â¬â¢s attended audience was Christian followers, he also helps justify document 1 in Godric went from rich to poor in order to devote himself to god. I would have liked a document from a person not Christian or Islam because it would have allow me to understand how much both religions influence the views of its subjects. Despite the similarities Christianit y religious views seem to rather negative and stricter than the Muslims were lighter and positive. Merchants and trade in the eyes of Christianity and Islam began to change significantly overtime. Ibn Khaldun says how beneficial the merchants are to the capital, for they buy goods in one area, only to sell at a higher price in an area in demand. Which the QurÃ¢â¬â¢an also depicts, however it encourages trade as long as it is fair and truthful. Yet Ibn Khaldun gives us evidence of laws which were established in order to control merchantÃ¢â¬â¢s behavior. In addition, document 7 shows how the Islamic court had power over merchants and could affect their behavior as well as. Unlike Islam which began to become stricter, Christianity began look towards it positively, such as, letter C of document 6 describes an order being canceled for English wool, and the consumer seemingly brings god name into it, which suggest the consumer does not think of trade conflicting with Christianity. Which letter A also identify for both letters show how the merchantÃ¢â¬â¢s goal is to make a profit, and they see no problem with. In conclusion, Christianity and Islam attitudes towards trade and me rchants were similar in certain aspects as, of the beginning both viewed it negatively, and on a religious level. However, both began to change their views on trade and merchants. For Christianity began approving trade, while Islam began harsher treatment towards trade and merchants.
Friday, August 30, 2019
Explain how to support effective communication within your own job role. Communication is constantly happening within the day care center and in my job role I have a responsibility to communicate with staff, service users and other professionals. I use various forms of communication but I also seek to make sure that it is understood. Communication has got to be understood before it can be effective and so I try to ensure comprehension when I am verbally speaking by getting staff to repeat what I have asked them to do. I also write simply worded memos and emails to ensure ease of comprehension.When communicating with other professionals I speak clearly and seek affirmation when organizing meetings or planning events. I also seek to write in a legible manner if writing to professionals. Each service user has a communication book for reporting and informing families and carers of activities on a daily basis, these are written in a legible way also. Primarily when communicating with each individual service user I seek to communicate in an understandable way and at a level each individual will understand. The methods I employ are verbal, pictorial, object-based, physical prompts and signing.Analyse the barriers and challenges to communication within own job role. Propose improvements to communication systems and practices to address any shortcomings. Lead the implementation of revised communication systems and practices. Barrier/Challenge. Explaination. How could it be improved? How have I improved it Deafness? Some of our service users have hearing loss and on occasions forget to bring their hearing aids to day care. This presents a severe communication challenge and barrier on these occasions.Bring hearing aid in daily. I have written a request in service userÃ¢â¬â¢s communication book requesting that hearing aids are sent in daily and suggesting that a spare is obtained in the event that his current hearing aid is broken. Visual impairments mean that visual cue s and prompts are meaningless and this includes signing. Glasses could be worn. I have requested that service users wear their glasses to aid with communication. I have adapted general approach to service users to compensate for blindness. No Speech/Speech Impediments. Some of our service users have poor speech or no speech at all. With these service users an alternative form of communication is required or an ability to listenÃ intently and comprehend what they are saying. Picture/objects of reference.A jotter and pen to spell difficult words.For some of our service users I have drawn together objects and photographs of reference and each one acts as a word of vocabulary and provides an ability to communicate effectively. For one of my service users I have encouraged him to spell out difficult words to understand. Comprehension. Some of our service users have profound learning disabilities and their level of comprehension and understanding is very limited, however they communicat e constantly.Alternative methods could be sought.One individual has been taught to Ã¢â¬Å"eye-pointÃ¢â¬ at what she wants. Another gets quite restless and verbal when he is upset and smiles and giggles when happy. Staff have been informed of how this service user communicates. Time Another challenge to effective communication in the day care center is time. We are all busy and we donÃ¢â¬â¢t always have the time to listen and to communicate the way we should.Better time management.Managing our workload allows us to take time with our service users. However on many occasions there is no solution as we are all busy and things need to be completed. Noise. One of the biggest preventatives and barriers to effective communication is noise. Is the music too loud? Is the television on? Is there too many people in the room talking? Turn music/TV volume down, close doors, ensure staff have a relevant reason for being in the day care room.I have ensured volume of music etc. is at an accept able level.I have told staff to leave the day care room or to stop talking so loudly to enable the preservation of an environment conducive to effective communication. Distance. When communicating with service users or staff members at the other side of the room or down the corridor distance and space apart can become a barrier and a challenge to effective communication. Go to the individual you are communicating with. Although it is not always possible it is advisable to go to the individual and I seek to do this as much as possible. Computer System/E-mail. When sending or receiving e-mails it is necessary to have access to a working computer which is Ã¢â¬ËonlineÃ¢â¬â¢.Have various Ã¢â¬ËbackupsÃ¢â¬â¢ when communicating via email. I have sent emails and to ensure that the information has been forwarded I haveÃ sent hard copies too.
Thursday, August 29, 2019
Analyzing Enterprise Resource Planning system implementation success factors in the Engineering-Procurement Construction & Commissioning Industry Introduction Back Ground Enterprise Systems (ES), also called Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) systems, are among the most important business information technologies to emerge in the last decade. While no two industries Enterprise Systems are the same, the basic concept of Enterprise Systems is focused mainly on standardization, synchronization and improved efficiency. ERP is basically the successor to material resource planning (MRP) and integrated accounting systems such as payroll, general ledger, and billing. The benefits of Enterprise Systems are very significant: coordinating processes and information, reducing carrying costs, decreasing cycle time and improving responsiveness to customer needs [ (Davenport, 2000) ]. MRP is limited to controlling the flow of components and materials, and does not lend itself to more complete production control and coordination. The next generation of manufacturing software, known as MRP II, was developed to address this shortcoming and to further integrate business activities into a common framework. MRP II divides the production control problem into a hierarchy based on time scale and product aggregation. It coordinates the manufacturing process, allowing a variety of tasks such as capacity planning, demand management, production scheduling and distribution to be linked together. [ (Mendelson, 2000) ] Conventionally, the EPC firms have been faced with the predicament of handling the mega projects. The issue always is to keep these multimillion dollar projects on schedule, under budget, and safe with the quality specified by the end user. Although the EPC firms are one of the leading contributors to the development of region, yet it faces the challenges of most highly fragmented, inefficient, and geographically dispersed industries in the world. In recent times the emergence of ERP Software has helped such firms to overcome the issues. EPC Companies in the present world are expanding day by day, moving across the globe to open new avenues of business and expand. These companies also seek diversification in their business and continuously changing and adopting technology to keep pace and maintain their competitive advantage in their prior and newly adopted business sectors. Managing these huge companies need special support of Information Technology to keep a track of activities and handle them accordingly. Companies like BHP Billiton, Nestle etc. have implemented ERP systems around the globe wherever they operate. In our part of the world i. e. Pakistan companies such as Packages, FFC, Raftan Maize and Descon etc. have all implemented ERP systems to handle their business in a more efficient manner with their growth locally and globally. ERP is a software architecture that facilitates the flow of information among the different functions within an enterprise. Similarly, ERP facilitates information sharing across organizational units and geographical locations. It enables decision-makers to have an enterprise-wide view of the information they need in a timely, reliable and consistent fashion. ERP provides the backbone for an enterprise-wide information system. At the core of this enterprise software is a central database which draws data from and feeds data into modular applications that operate on a common computing platform, thus standardizing business processes and data definitions into a unified environment. With an ERP system, data needs to be entered only once. The system provides consistency and visibility-or- transparency across the entire enterprise. A primary benefit of ERP is easier access to reliable, integrated information. A related benefit is the elimination of redundant data and the rationalization of processes, which result in substantial cost savings. [ (Mendelson, 2000) ]. Problem Statement Unfortunately for Nestle USA, they did not heed the failures of others. Throughout the implementation, Nestle USA made several large mistakes that almost doomed the project. When the project began a team of 50 top executives and 10 senior IT professionals was assembled to develop a set of best practices for all Nestle USA divisions. The goal was to develop these best practices for all functions of the organization. By the time the implementation began in 1999 Nestle already had problems with its employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ acceptance of the system. Most of the resistance met by the project team was traced back to the fact that Ã¢â¬Å"none of the groups that were going to be directly affected by the new processes and systems were represented on the key stakeholderÃ¢â¬â¢s teamÃ¢â¬ . This was only the start of Nestle USAÃ¢â¬â¢s problems. By early 2000, the implementation had turned into a disaster. Employees did not understand how to use the new system and did not understand the new work processes they were being forced to adopt. Divisional executives were just as confused as their employees as they had been left out of the planning and development of the new system and were less than willing to assist in straightening out the mess that had developed. The result of this was that morale plummeted and turnover skyrocketed [ (Dieringer, 2004) ]. Nestle learned the hard way that an enterprise-wide rollout involves much more than simply installing software. When you move to SAP, you are changing the way people work,Ã¢â¬ Dunn says. Ã¢â¬Å"You are challenging their principles, their beliefs and the way they have done things for many, many years. Ã¢â¬ [ (Worthen, 2002) ] While itÃ¢â¬â¢s true that successful implementation of an enterprise resource planning system is a task of Herculean proportions, itÃ¢â¬â¢s not impossible. If your organization is to reap the benefits of ERP, it must first develop a plan for success. But prepare to see your organization reengineered, your staff disrupted, and your productivity drop before the payoff is realized. In a recent survey, information technology managers identified three primary reasons for the failure of all IT-related projects: poor planning or poor management (cited by 77 percent), change in business goals during the project (75 percent), and lack of business management support (73 percent). Since ERP is an IT-related project, the above are valid reasons for explaining ERP implementation failures. For managers who have struggled with incompatible information systems and sub-optimum operating practices, the promise of ERP to solve the problem of business integration is enticing. But the price of securing the benefits of ERP may be high. The cost of a modest ERP implementation can range from $2 million to $4 million, depending on the size of the organization and the specific products and services purchased from vendors. The cost of a full-blown implementation in a large organization can easily exceed $ 100 million. [ (Umble, 2002) ] Research Objectives The objective of this research is to identify factors that influence ERP implementation, providing factors associated with the success of ERP systems in EPC firms. The research brings to limelight the factors associated with the success or failure of ERP implementation, and scrutinize these factors according to the level of significance in affecting the success of ERP systems. The primary research objectives: 1) Identify the factors responsible for the success or failure of ERP implementation? a. Identify factors that can motivate users to adopt the ERP System and make the project successful. b. Also to discuss relationship between these factors. ) What marks the success of an ERP implementation and how to avoid the failure of implementation? Literature Review EPC Companies such as Descon, Hyundai, Bechtel, Petronas and Foster Wheeler etc. face frequent challenges of managing project schedules, budgets, safety, and quality to meet requirements provided by the end user / customers across the globe. The proper utilization of internal and external resources is essential if construction companies are to make the best business decisions, maximize bu siness goals, and survive in the competitive environment (Shi, 2003). Recently, an appreciable number of major EPC companies decided to implement enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems, an integrated information technology IT solution, to better integrate various business functions and resources, particularly those related to project accounting procedures and practices (Boo Young Chung, 2008). Enterprise resource planning systems, also called enterprise systems ES are among the most important business information technologies that emerged during the last decade. While no two industriesÃ¢â¬â¢ ERP systems are the same, the basic concept of ERP systems is focused on standardization and synchronization of information, and as a result, improved efficiency. The benefits of ERP systems include coordinating processes and information, reducing carrying costs, decreasing cycle time, and improving responsiveness to customer needs (Davenport, 2000). Major EPC firms are starting to recognize the benefit of ERP systems, however, they are often hesitant to invest and adopt these systems due to high cost and risks associated with ERP system implementation. Many factors must be considered for successful implementation, but construction firms have little to guide them in identifying key success factors (Boo Young Chung, 2008). The ERP Systems are not limited to just financial and accounting, they have the whole system embedded in them. The ERP modules such as SAP comprise of modules for Supply Chain Management, Human Capital Management, Material Management, Finance etc. The main modules of an ERP System are as follows 1. Finance & Controlling (FI & CO) 2. Quality Management (QM) 3. Material Management (MM) 4. Human Capital Management (HCM) . Project Systems (PS) 6. Production Planning (PP) 7. Sales & Distribution (SD) 8. Treasury (TR) 9. Plant Maintenance (PM) 10. Customer Relationship Management (CRM) Currently, many construction firms have implemented their ERP systems adopting a best-of-breed approach in which separate software packages were selected for each process or function rather than using full packages of major ERP vendors (Ta tari, 2007). EPC Companies selected different modules like material management, quality management from major ERP vendors and clubbed together with their customized software. The customization of these ERP Systems have been a major issue as all companies try to mend these modules in to their own processes which makes the implementation very difficult. For this reason, regardless of the agreed upon implementation approach, any integrated corporate system in which all the necessary business functions are pieced together for the company is considered the ERP system in this study. The main reason of using this approach is that construction processes are less standardized than manufacturing: each project has a different owner, is managed by a different project team, requires different specifications, etc. Therefore, success or failure factors and their significance for ERP implementation in the construction industry may be different from those in the manufacturing industry. (Boo Young Chung, 2008). We can classify ERPs benefits as: (1) improvement of information flow between sub-units by standardization and integration of activities, (2) centralization of administrative activities such as accounts payable and payroll, (3) reduction of IS aintenance costs and increased ability to deploy new IS functionality, (4) transformation enablement from inefficient business processes to accepted best-of-practice processes (Ayyub Ansarinejad1, 2011) Variables in the ERP Model The main variables in ERP Success model are * Output * Job relevance * Image * Result demonstrability * Compatibility * System Reliability * Internal Support * Function * Consultant Support * Subjective Norm * Perceived Usefulness * Perceived ease of use * Intention to use * ERP Benefits * Project Success / progress * Project success / quality Bibliography Ayyub Ansarinejad1, M. -S. A. (2011). Evaluating the critical success factors in ERP Implementation using Fuzzy AHP approach. Internation Journal of Academic Reserach , 65-80. Boo Young Chung, M. J. (2008). Anaylzing Enterprise Resource Planning System Implementation Factors in the Engineering-Construction Industry. Journal of Computing in Civil Engineering , 373-382. Davenport, T. (2000). Mission Critical : Realizing the promise of Enterprise Systems. Harvard Business School Press Boston . Dieringer, D. S. (2004). ERP Implementation at Nestle. Mendelson, H. (2000). ERP Overview. Graduate School of Business, Stanford University, Stanford, CA . Shi, J. J. (2003). Enterprise Resource Planning for Construction Business Management. Journal for Construction Engineering and Management , 214-221. Tatari, O. C. -L. (2007). Current state of construction enterprise information system: Survey Research. Construction Innovation , 310-310. Umble, E. J. (2002). Avoiding ERP Implementation Failure. Industrial Management, Industrial Management Society , 25-33. Worthen, B. (2002, May 15th). Nestle's ERP Odyssey.
Legal Consciousness - Essay Example The law pulls us by manipulating our mindsets; as such, it manages to shape our activities. Therefore, behaviors and codes that we observe are resultant of guidelines since the law attracts us into adopting them. The push appears as an obligatory application of the law because when persons fail to follow the law, then they are forced to follow it. As such, the law pushes or forces persons into adopting a desired habit, which shapes their activities. According to Myers (2004), most teachers suffer law consequences because they are mainly ignorant to new codes and regulations that are binding. Therefore, I would update myself frequently to avoid such situations. However, when confronted by challenges, my immediate response would entail evaluating the matter critically to identify my alternatives and the consequences of adopting any of the available option. As such, I would firstly seek to familiarize myself with the current events and novel regulations that affect my duties. I would then adopt an action most suited in correcting the situation and afterwards institute strategies that would avoid future recurrences. An apparent reality that an administrator must understand is that one can never cover problems, thus, facing them remains the viable solution. As such, I would seek to respond to arising problems coherently. Administrators monitor a group of individuals with diverse personalities, intentions and concerns making them face challenges emerging from varied sectors (Parkay & Stanford, 2007). This indicates that an administration post demands one to have a tactical mind that can respond to such predicaments effectively. I would always seek to gather the necessary information before communication my stand when faced by any problem. As such, research would be my guiding term since I never approve an idea of furnishing my client
Wednesday, August 28, 2019
Cardiac Exercise Prescription, Referral & Rehabilitation case study - Essay Example The pain typically lasts for 5 to 10 minutes and subsides with rest. The pain is non-radiating and is not associated with other symptoms like nausea, vomiting, cough, breathlessness, palpitations, syncopal attacks, expectoration, edema or fever. The patient also complains of easy fatiguibility since 15 days. Past Medical History (Non-cardiac): He has hypertension since 10 years and is on antihypertensives and aspirin. He has high blood cholesterol levels which has reduced after initiation of cholesterol lowering agents. Peter suffered from major illness at 20 years of age when more than half his lung was damaged due to pneumonia. He underwent 2 hernia operations, one for right inguinal hernia 10 years ago and a repeat surgery for the same hernia 6 years ago. His stay in the hospital during that period was uneventful. Peter does not have diabetes mellitus. There are no known allergies identified in him. Cardiac History: The patient is a known case of myocardial ischemia, diagnosed 4 y ears ago when he was treated with placement of stents. 17 months ago he suffered from myocardial ischemia. Currently, he is admitted for angina due to ischemic heart disease. Ischemic heart disease or IHD or coronary heart disease is a condition in which there is oxygen deprivation to the muscles of the heart as a result of decreased blood flow and perfusion and is accompanied by inadequate removal of the products of metabolism (Zevitz, 2006). This is the most common form of heart disease and a leading cause of premature death in the developed countries (Zevitz, 2006). The hallmark feature of this condition is imbalance between the supply and demand of oxygen of the myocardium which can occur either due to increased myocardial oxygen demand or decreased myocardial oxygen supply or both. Ischemia to the myocardium results from disease in the coronary arteries. The disease is most often due to formation of atheroma and its consequences like thrombosis. Of all the arteries in the body, coronary arteries are at increased risk of developing atheroma (Maseri et al, 1992). Personal history: As a lorry driver, Peter used to enjoy eating fatty food, especially take away Chinese foods. The patient has regular diet and sleep. His bowel and bladder habits are regular. The patient was a smoker and used to smoke about 60 cigarettes a day. 3 years ago, the number came down to 10 per day. He has given up smoking now for the past one month. He does not take alcohol. He is not addicted to illicit drugs. He leads an active life and walks about half an hour a day for 5-6 days a week, of which atleast 10 minutes is brisk walking. His hobbies are racing and gardening. Family history: Both his parents were diabetic and hypertensive. However, there is no family history of heart disease. Peter is married and has one daughter and five sons, who are source of some stress to him. Education: Peter did not undergo proper schooling. He studied in a technical school for 3 years. He started w orking as a lorry driver since the age of 15. He did not receive any education about cardiac disease. Patient mentioned that if he received any such education earlier, he would have cut down on smoking. Risk Factor Profile: Modifiable risk factors: 1.
Tuesday, August 27, 2019
Preperation for Transferring 25 Employees to France for Business - Research Paper Example Per the request made to determine the current political, business, and economic conditions in France, this research report gives a detailed account of the same in light of its importance to the ability of the employees to function in a new culture. The request necessitated a survey of the socio-cultural environment in France, including details of communication protocols and etiquette, French social life, and their business etiquette. These three factors will have a significant effect on the ability of your employees to be productive in France. Communication is especially important given that the French consider good communication skills as a sign of education and intelligence. For this reason, I investigated how written, verbal, and non-verbal practices can affect daily life, social interaction, and business operation. My preliminary recommendation is that the transfer of employees is feasible, particularly because your company already has some presence in the French market. If you d o decide to go act on the recommendations and transfer the employees, the research findings and recommendations cover possible scenarios and eventualities. It is my hope that the research report will form part of your guidelines in preparing your employees for the challenging but exciting socio-cultural changes and new business practices. V/r Shondrea A. James Executive Summary This research report sets out to attain three major objectives; to determine the economic situation in France, to find out the best business practices that employees moving to France would need to adhere to, and to identify opportunities and risks that would come with expanding the company in France. The paper also discusses the economic situation in France, French labor laws, and the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s socio-cultural environment with information on these collected via primary and secondary means. As a senior member of the European Union, France is one of EuropeÃ¢â¬â¢s and the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s leading economies . The government maintains strong presence in some industries like public transport, power, and defense, which means that the electronics industry will have to make with some government regulation. The research study found that the labor costs in France have been increasing steadily over the past ten years, while their tax rates are similar to those of other countries with similar GDP to theirs. France is made up of a Latin and Celtic majority with several minority communities including Basque and North Africa. When communicating in France, it is important to note that verbal, non-verbal, and written communication is very important and have specific rules. With regards to their social life, the French value their food, take care of their families, take parenting seriously, and are generally private people with social stratification. Finally, business etiquette is very important with appointments being mandatory and their cancellation or delay requiring communication. The electronics industry is highly competitive in France with examples of the top brands including Mdp Finance, Navimo Group, Ten Power Industry Co., Laboratoire Biopharne, and Sealing Package Industrial. While the competition is tough, the French electronics indus
Monday, August 26, 2019
Jury Decision-making - Case Study Example After the authenticity of DNA evidence had been proved, many judgements have been overturned and one such famous case is The Case of the Winchester Three, (1990) where three Irish people were sentenced for 25 years of imprisonment for the murder of Secretary of State for Northern Ireland, Tom King. Eye witnesses had spotted them in the crime scene and they had money, a second hand car, a radio, a woolly hat, a list of prominent British people and also had false name driving licences. Jury relied on eye witness evidence and any reasonable jury could do so and in this case it eventually proved to be a miscarriage of justice. Even though it was not Actus reus, it was easy to convince the jury. "An eyewitness who has no motive to lie is a powerful form of evidence for jurors, especially if the eyewitness appears to be highly confident about his or her recollection. In the absence of definitive proof to the contrary, the eyewitness's account is generally accepted by police, prosecutors, j udges, and juries" says Wells (2006). Wells and Loftus (1984, p. 1), mention the bewildering case of Robert Dillen, a freelance photographer, who was charged with indecent exposure for relieving himself in the park bushes, after ascertaining that the public lavatory was locked. Unfortunately, his photo was published and identified by many eye witnesses as the man who conducted rape, armed robbery, kidnapping etc. in various cases. Fortunately, his strong alibis and the weakness of eye witnesses convinced the jury otherwise, and he was released every time. This shows that people can feel convinced that they saw the accused and they are absolutely sure that even a lie test fails to point out. Psychological studies have proved that it is possible to convince a person that he has witnessed something that had never happened. A confluence of memory combined with complexly operating socially influential alternatives could be responsible in eye witnessing errors and courts should consider them from every angle. "The eight factors that have been shown to affect identification accuracy, disguise of robber, weapon focus, violence of robbery, retention interval, exposure, to mug shots, biased line-up instructions, line-up size, and fairness of the line-up, had trivial effects on probability ratings and on verdicts" Culter et al (1988). Sometimes eyewitness confidence and accuracy are very poorly related and the memory of the face that could go through changes in the mind of the witness, and this shows that vibrant psychological effects are behind eyewitness evidence. Cultler concludes one of his researches: "This research provides some justification for admitting expert psychological testimony on eyewitness identification. The juror apparently does not evaluate eyewitness memory in a manner consistent with psychological theory and findings." Cutler (1990). In one of his researches, Kassin concludes: "Clearly, participants distinguished between a voluntary and coerced confession. Yet at the same time, the presence of any confession powerfully increased the conviction rate-even when it was seen as coerced, even when
Sunday, August 25, 2019
English Exam - Assignment Example The book focuses on African- American relationship of Jim a young man who lives in the Mississippi river. One of the major concerns is the use of the word Ã¢â¬Ënigger,Ã¢â¬â¢ which is disliked by most readers and critics. In estimation, the word appears 215 times making the book to be banned from most of the classrooms in United States. The writing styles, the themes, and the language are not fit for the book to be used in a classroom setting. A major concern is the type of language used and the nature of racial discrimination that is illustrated by these pieces of arts (Born to Trouble). The books and the movies show in details the origin of the word Ã¢â¬ËniggerÃ¢â¬â¢ and how the blacks were mistreated, hanged, and killed while being called the name. Adventures of Huckleberry Finn book is important as a historic book drawing a clear line on the treatment of the blacks by the whites. The book is most important in the curriculum since it clearly speaks and brings out the issue of racial discrimination, racial language, racial inequality, and many racial concerns that most white Americans fear and always avoid. It is for this reason that most of the parents and critics advocate for its banning. Twain himself shows a greater understanding of racism (Classic Literature). From these pieces of art, immorality has been expressed which is one of the shortcomings that has embraced most of the cities and states in the US. For example, TwainÃ¢â¬â¢s phrases that clearly indicate that the book is both immoral and vulgar in the way it presents itself hence not fit for the society. Twain writes, "Those idiots in Concord are not a court of last resort and I am not disturbed by their moral gymnastics.Ã¢â¬ From the SimpsonÃ¢â¬â¢s we also observe cases of immorality especially when Homer the Heretic decides not to go to church but watch TV while drinking waffle batters and loafs while wearing his underwear. In addition to this, women have been used as symbols of sex and are observed as objects for sexual gratitude. For example, in the episode, I love Lisa, Lisa give Ralph a valentineÃ¢â¬â¢s card and Ralph interprets this as Lisa being in love with him. In the book the Custom of the Country, Ralph also considers Undine a sexual object. This is also widely shown with Twain in his book in abusive ways. Women have also been portrayed as lonely and hopeless people in these pieces of art. This is evident when Undine in the book Custom of the Country becomes pregnant and later neglects her son. This is because she did not like her in-laws and therefore felt so lonely to an extent of neglecting her own son. On the other hand, the Simpson season 4, Aunt Selma believes that getting a baby is the only way, which is able to relieve her of her loneliness. Question 2 Mad men season 1 themes of immorality, corruption, lies, and deception can be compared to WhartonÃ¢â¬â¢s The Custom of the Country. Peggy is suffering from sexual harassment from her male c olleagues at work. Peggy sleeps with Pete Campbell on his bachelorÃ¢â¬â¢s party just the eve before he gets married who is her junior accounts manager. On the other hand, Don is cheating on her depressed wife Betty. Roger Sterling is also cheating on his wife Mona. All these are cases of immorality in season 1 of the mad men. In comparison to The Custom of the Country Undine although married engage in an affair with Peter Van
Saturday, August 24, 2019
Good Night, and good luck Chuck - Movie Review Example Times in America must have been hard at the time. America had an enemy within that was causing the people a lot of fear. Everyone suspected the person next to them of being the enemy. People suspected of being communists had to bear serious charges; sometimes courts need no evidence to declare suspects guilty. Some people made false charges of others that were used to bring them down. This movie takes the viewer back to the times a cold war existed between America and the Soviet Union, when every American was afraid they would lose to the soviet nation. According to ideas brought about in the movie, the news media has a great responsibility of informing and entertaining the people. As shown in the film, making responsible decisions on what to present or leave out in media stations is not an easy task. Such decisions are subject to criticism by those in power and journalists may suffer serious consequences if they mess up with those thought to be unbeatable in society; the high and mighty. However, one of the journalists and his producer clearly point out that despite the risks involved, journalists should focus on giving the people reliable information. The media should assume responsibility in its endeavors and expose the realities kept in the dark. The media should not lose integrity in fear of politicians who are selfish. Due to their selfish interests, the high and mighty in society always wants to control everything aired on media stations. The media should have the interests of the common citizen at heart. This movie suggests that media should participate actively in exposing the flaws in society. Media should offer more to the people and not just entertainment. Some journalists in this movie are an example worth emulating; they hosted a show that was able to expose the injustices committed in society. Evident in the movie, the media was very
Friday, August 23, 2019
GenerAges and Millennials in Adulthood - Essay Example Today there are two brand operating systems running; Baby Boomers and Millennials. The two systems are the primary authors of that system. Some authors of this code are visible and successful Boomer and Millennial leaders. However, other groups comprise of populations of other younger people. The user power, social attitudes, and influence on small groups including peers and friends is to fill numerous codes that will be stronger and withstand future attacks. The scope of this paper will therefore be based on discussing two groups of generations; Baby Boomers and Millennials. This essay will go to compare the Greatest Generation, Baby Boomers and Millennials in terms of ethics, values, and lifestyle. Also, the paper will give a detailed description on events that occurred during lives of these two groups that helped explainÃ each of the generationsÃ values and lifestyle. Lastly, the paper will describe some of the major changes in socialÃ values and beliefsÃ from the older ge nerations to the Millennials. Compared to other older generation, Millennials place a premium on parental and peer relationships. Technology has provided them with means to stay in touch, and they do stay connected with family and friends. Most often their heroes are their parents or grandparents. So it is not surprising that they share a desire for a warm and loving family life for themselves and their children. They want a stable family life and hope to avoid divorce and its effect on their children. They value making money not as an end in itself, but as a means to improve family life and to provide for their children. Millennials believe that making money will never be more important for them than children and family life (Pew Research Center). They also believe they have a financial responsibility to care for aging parents. While they may fuss and fume about being too sheltered by their parents and even disagree with their parentÃ¢â¬â¢s or old generationÃ¢â¬â¢s values, they respect
Thursday, August 22, 2019
Summary of Dr. Faustus Essay ?Christopher Marlowe was an older contemporary of William Shakespeare. The Tragical History of Doctor Faustus is his best known work. Christopher Marlowe based his play Doctor Faustus on stories about a scholar and magician, Johann Faust, who allegedly sold his soul to the devil to gain magical powers. Born in 1488, the original Faust wandered through his German homeland until his death in 1541. In 1587, the first story about his life appeared in Germany. What Marlowe creates out of the story is a Medieval morality- play with a late Renaissance temper. In Doctor Faustus, Marlowe has made good use of a conventional Christian doctrine. Faustus strives against human limitation to the point of selling his soul. He is not only a seeker for power but also a knower and a desirer to know. The play begins with Dr. Faustus shown in his study, where he is deciding upon which field to specialise in- Analytics or Logic. Dissatisfied with his human status, he would like to have magical powers of making men live eternally and bringing back the dead to life. He rejects divine learning also, because it is based on a recognition of manÃ¢â¬â¢s morality and fallibility. For most of the play, the chorus sets the motion of the drama. The first Act establishes the unscholarly attitude of Faustus and also the base for his tragedy- a poor bargain eventually made with the devil that will leave him devastated in the end. The subplot of Wagner, the scholars and the clown dramatises FaustusÃ¢â¬â¢ predicament in very crude terms and have certain comical elements in it. Act 2 outlines the tragedy with greater depth. FaustusÃ¢â¬â¢s rebellion against human nature is quite desperate, because it loses more than it gains. But Faustus is Ã¢â¬Å"resolvedÃ¢â¬ and shall Ã¢â¬Å"never repentÃ¢â¬ . He finally signs the pact with the devil, giving away his soul in return for the services of limitless knowledge. Acts 3 and 4 are basically about the kind of life Faustus is now leading with the help of Mephistophilis and other minions of the devil. Faustus seeks and Mephistophilis plans, rather a series of comic indulgences mainly to distract the formerÃ¢â¬â¢s mind from the tormenting religious awareness. The final Act brings a climatic end of Faustus. The 24 years of the agreement comes to an end and with that, the sad realisation that all knowledge, wealth and power of the world were futile in comparison to having an everlasting place in heaven. The keynote of the final monologue of Faustus, before the devil takes him, is a feeling of pity and terror which all great tragedies are expected to arouse. Marlowe had a twofold aim in the play. He would write a morality play and hence the substantial stasis can be highlighted along with the comedy and the undramaticality of the play associated with the morality tradition. J. P. Brockbank observes, that the play serves a purpose for the audience- Ã¢â¬Å"In fear we acquiesce in the littleness and powerlessness of man, and in pity we share his sufferings and endorse his protest. Ã¢â¬
Wednesday, August 21, 2019
Course reflection Essay I have learned so much during this course that helped me get a better understanding of the writing process. A few of the concepts that helped me the most were keeping an error log, and reading my assignments out loud. The first concept I will address in this discussion is also the most important guidance I have received since starting at Ashford. My instructor, Dr. Wells, advised me in week 1, that I might want to keep an error log. What that is, is writing down the mistakes I make in my assignments, quizzes, and discussions. After writing these errors down, find the correct spelling or the grammatical rule I broke, write the correct answer, and then study and learn from these mistakes. This technique has helped me the most since starting at Ashford. As a writer, I have always been a big proofreader of my work. I would sometimes look over my papers several times before submitting them. Most of the times I would catch 90% of my errors, not all the time though. I learned that reading your paper out loud can also improve your proofreading. Sometimes just looking over a paper isnÃ¢â¬â¢t enough. When you hear the writing though, you can hear what others will be hearing. I would catch small errors because the sentence didnÃ¢â¬â¢t sound right or it was a run on sentence. These are things I would sometimes miss just reading my paper. Out of all the course materials I have read and studied, I believe 2 of the most valuable were chapters 4-3, Essentials of College Writing, and The Ashford Writing Center. In the Essentials of College Writing, 4-3 The Writing Process, showed me different techniques to use for writing an essay. Some of these ideas were plan, generate ideas, create a rough draft, revise, edit, and proofread and check format. This book taught me the value of making an outline and the importance of planning. It always helps to be prepared and have an idea of what youÃ¢â¬â¢re writing before you write it. The Ashford Writing Center has really made a big impact on my writing style. I was having so much trouble with APA formatting and how to insert citations, that I would lose percentage points on my work. After skimming through this text, I found in chapter 7-1 an instructional video that showed me step by step how to use APA format. In the same book, chapter 7-3, Citations and References, this taught me the proper way to insert my citations. There is also a thesis generator in this text in chapter 3-3, this has been one of the biggest helps to me in my writing process. The areas and that I believe have improved the most, and that I will continue to work on are my spelling and punctuation. The error log has helped with my spelling and punctuation but I still sometimes make careless mistakes. Though these areas have improved a lot, I will continue to work on these areas.
Leadership theories in the context of healthcare management Do healthcare mangers need leadership theories? Critically evaluate at least two leadership theories in the context of healthcare management. According to Huczynski and Buchanan (2007), Leadership is defined as the process of influencing the activities of an organised group in its effort towards goal setting and goal achievement. Grint (2005:2) describes leadership as a function of relationship between leaders and followers, rather than simply focused on the person of the leader. According to Bass (1990:19), leadership is an interaction between two or more members of the group that often involves a structuring or restructuring of the situations, perceptions and expectations of the members. Thus it can be said from the above definitions that leadership is enacted through relationships with others i.e. the followers and leadership is widely distributed throughout the organization. Healthcare organisations around the world spend enormous amount of money in infrastructure and renovating facilities in hospitals, but spend a relatively less time or effort for the management of people who work in it. Effective leadership is therefore necessary for the smooth functioning of healthcare organization. According to Gunderman R. (2009), healthcare leaders should understand the nature of the organization where they work and should work in harmony with physicians, nurses, technologists, administrators and other members of organization. The people who work in healthcare organizations as leaders should understand the needs of the people they work with and should motivate them in order to increase their performance. Thus the overall performance of the organization depends upon the behaviour of leaders with their followers. Failure to understand human motivation can result in downfall of the organization. Medical leaders should look at the following questions: Which is more effective way to deal with the workers, benefits such as salary raises and public praise, or sticks, such as threat of termination and reduction in compensation? How can we improve workers performance, through tighter control or by increasing autonomy and empowerment? If the crucial needs of the workers are not fulfill ed it can affect their commitment towards organization and may result in financial instability of the organization. Leadership and management are often compared under the same platform. People are often confused and ask a question, Are managers leaders? The answer is NO, they differ from each other in many ways. Leadership is one of the roles that managers have to play and is therefore a subset of management. According to Gopee and Galloway (2009), management is about measuring and monitoring performance against pre-determined goals, following policies and procedures, controlling and organizing the structure and systems, working within resource allocation and maximizing output and productivity for the organization. Whilst on the other side leadership is about being visionary, anticipating change, motivating and inspiring workers and focusing on development of individuals. Watson (1983), describes seven Ss models to distinguish between leaders and managers. According to Watson (1983), managers mainly rely upon 3 Ss namely strategy, structure and systems, whereas leaders depends on 4 soft Ss called style, staff, skills and shared goals. Hollingsworth (1999) suggests fundamental differences between leaders and managers. According to him managers do things right i.e. they are transactional, while leaders do the right things i.e. transformational, managers administer while leaders innovate, manager focus on systems and structure while leaders focus on people. Thus leadership is a two-way process based on leader-follower relationship while management is based on relationship between the people working in the organization as individuals or teams. (Gopee and Gathway, 2009). Theories of Leadership: Several leadership theories have emerged over the past suggesting practical applications of leadership and its concept. Different leadership theories that are developed since 1920s are listed below: Time period 1920s 1940s Theory Trait or Great man theory Barnard (1938) for prescriptives: Ghiselli and Wald Doty (1954) for the descriptives. Style or behavioural theory Blake and Mouton (1964), Likert (1961) and McGregor (1960) Focus Intelligence, initiative and self-assurance. Participative culture, Represented a more democratic humanistic approach to the use of man in organisations and come at the time of reaction against scientific management. 1960s Contingency theory Fielder (1967), Schein (1980) and Vroom and Yetton (1973) An integrative way of looking at leadership, more specific to task work group and position of leader within that work group. A best fit approach. 1980s Post contingencies theory Bennis (1992), Kotter (1982), Mant (1983) and Peters and Waterman (1982) This theory particularly focused on American Business leaders with some perceptive comments as well as Anglo-Saxon leadership habits. 1990s Transformational leadership Bass and Avolio (1993), Cunningham and Kitson (2000a, 2000b) and Sushter (1994) Four components. 1. Idealised influence; 2. Inspirational motivation; 3. Intellectual stimulation; and 4. Individualised consideration. Late 90s-2000s Contemporary theories. Goleman (1999), Jumaa (2001), Alleyne (2002), Goffee and Jones (2000) Charismatic leadership Connective leadership Servant leadership Transactional leadership Transformational leadership Adapted from- Jasper M. and Jumaa M (2005), Effective Healthcare Leadership,page-25-26 Trait or Great man leadership theory. According to this theory certain persons have inborn leadership traits. Many studies were conducted by the end of 1950s which explored specific characteristics of effective leaders. (Handy 1993). These studies described significant correlation between leadership effectiveness and following traits: Intelligence Self-confidence Knowledge Initiative Supervisory ability Integrity Bass (1990), based on several findings from studies developed a profile of traits that are marked in effective leaders. These are categorised in 3 areas mainly: Intelligence -Judgement -Decisiveness -Knowledge -Fluency Personality -Adaptability -Alertness -integrity -Nonconformity Ability -Cooperativeness Popularity -Tact However the trait theory has certain weakness and problems like; the traits are very difficult to define accurately or to understand fully; many exceptional leaders do not possess all identified leadership traits; it cannot be concluded that a person is better or worse as a manager or leader only by possessing one or two traits. It is still questionable whether an individual could have all the traits for being a leader. However despite of many other leadership theories emerged today, trait theory has not been completely disregarded. For example- Recent research study conducted by kouzes and Posner (2007) concluded that Admired Leaders were likely to draw out specific characteristics, whereas 50% or more respondents selected: Honest (88%), Forward looking (71%), Competent (66%) and inspiring (65%). Around 28-47% of respondents selected intelligent, broad minded, straightforward, co-operative, dependable and imaginative as specific characteristics of effective leaders; while less than 25% of people selected ambitious, caring, mature, courageous, loyal, self controlled and independent. However there is no evidence between the correlation of nature and the essential characteristics of leader nor on what an effective leader is. It can be seen as trait of position, or power or knowledge and wisdom. Kotter (1990) suggested the functional approach and focused on the fact that the performance can be improved can be improved by training and the leadership skills can be developed over a period of time and perfected. He also suggested that organisations should not wait for leaders to come by their own rather grow their own by identifying employees which have certain potential to be a good leader. Transactional and Transformational theories have gained popularity for Leadership in Healthcare Organizations out of the various leadership theories available. Transactional leadership theory. Transactional theory of leadership is based on leading people by the virtue of management position held in the organizational hierarchy. It is seen that in this theory leaders identify the needs of the followers and transact with them. Thus this theory is considered as a social exchange process based on the power and reward system. In healthcare organisations this theory is related to the achievement of organizational goals which also includes attending health of local population.( Gopee and Galloway, 2005) According to Bass and Riggio (2006), the transactional theory is based on the leaders who are successful or effective in such a way that they maintain equilibrium and harmony by fulfilling their roles according to the procedures and policies and use incentives to enhance employee loyalty and performance. The transactional leader sets goals, gives direction and uses rewards to strengthen employees behaviour towards meeting or exceeding established goals (McGuire and Kennerly 2006). Although this theory supports status quo and is more predictable but it has also been criticised by various authors as it is lacking vision for future of the healthcare organisation. Thus the transactional theory of leadership has a very narrow focus and the leader can have a high self interest which may eventually lead to disturbance in the organisational structure.(Gopee and Galloway, 2009) Transformational leadership theory Transformational leadership is widely supported leadership approach for healthcare. According to Burnes (1978), transformational leadership is identified as a process where one or more person engage in such a way that leaders and followers raise one another to higher level of motivation and morality. In transformational leadership leaders motivate their followers by transcending their own self interests, elevating their needs and making them aware of the mission of larger entity of the organisation where they belong. (Bass 1995). Transformational leadership is considered superior to the transactional leadership style as the whole workforce is developed as the part of the process whose main function is delivering organisations objective. This can be achieved by fostering identification, going beyond simple leader-follower transaction and developing and intellectually stimulating employees. (Vandenberghe et al. 2002). According to Murphy (2005), transformational leaders are visionary, self-confident, and self-aware in breaking professional boundaries to develop a multidisciplinary team approach towards patient care. Transformational leaders inspire the followers and motivate them to exercise leadership by encouraging their belief that have the potential to achieve high aims. Thus a transformational leader is the catalyst for creating new innovative organisational paradigms (Murphy 2005 :135). The transformational leadership style is described by Markham (1998) as collaborative, consultative and consensus seeking and attributing power to interpersonal skills and personal contact. Thus the transformational leadership allow the followers to develop ideas and aspirations on how things could be better in healthcare settings. It articulates a vision for betterment of the healthcare services and thus allows one to work for raising the standards of care and treatment. Manley (2001) identifies six transformational leadership processes in practice; Ability to develop a shared vision Inspiring and communicating Valuing others Challenging and stimulating Developing trust Enabling Using these processes, transformational leaders assist the people working with them to become empowered and take responsibility of ownership to practice challenges and solutions (Sashkin and Burke 1990). The impact of transformational leadership does not restrict to development of individuals but it can also produce significant changes in practice settings by influencing the organisational culture. One of the main features of the transformational leaders is that they can inspire other people to follow their clear vision and that they demonstrate self-confidence in their ability to articulate the vision and promote change.'( Mullally 2001). Transformational leadership is also compared to that of a leadership style previously called as charismaticleadership which is now out of fashion. For example, people like Hitler, Churchill, Mussolini, Mao Tse Tung and The Reverend Moon have been perceived as charismatic leaders in the past but in todays modern era it will be difficult to call them as transformational leaders. Charismatic leaders are assumed to use their magnetic personalities to attract the followers. They are usually good orators and share their imaginary ideas with followers to create a common purpose. For example-Barack Obama demonstrated this ability during his election campaign and is believed to demonstrate complex ideas in a comprehensible manner to his followers. The concept of transformational leadership and its applications in complex organisations such as healthcare is based on four central components (Bass 1998), (Plesek and Wilson 2001): Idealised influence (charisma) Inspirational motivation Intellectual stimulation Individualised consideration Transformational leadership topic has been debated since the past three decades because the above four components can reflect the potential for causing organisational harm and destruction if the leader in the framework is supported by emotional intelligence (Goleman 2000a) to guide them through the swampy lowlands of organisational life (Schon 1983). According to Manley (2000) the transformational leadership approach is highly beneficial for the healthcare organisations as it has positive effects in the organisational change. An analysis of transformational leadership style in North America has shown qualities of integrity and honesty all strengthen by strong core of moral and ethical values (Bashor 2000). The key principle required in applying the transformational leadership in healthcare organisation needs much openness and honesty in all interactions (Jasper 2005). The use of personal qualities (such as charisma, influencing skills and communication) needs to be equally balanced by high levels of understanding and personal insight. This can be achieved through self perception and feedback from other colleagues. The ability to inspire and motivate depends upon the process of visioning. The leaders should be able to describe their ideas with clarity and details and should explain about the future consequences. To achieve this vision one should start working for the future vision by learning from the past realities and should show a collective effort where everyone has an opportunity to participate in the creation (Fenton 2003). Intellectual stimulation can be achieved by maintaining mental and intellectual alertness and acuity which can be gained by encouraging open criticism and deba te of wide ranging evidence base thus it helps to form the foundation of substantive change. The development of all individual towards their potential is one of the goals of transformational leadership. This can only be achieved by sharing thoughts of power bases in both organisations and interpersonal relationships. (Jumma and Jasper 2005). Thus it is seen that the two leadership approaches i.e. transformational and transactional approach are different from each other. Transactional leadership mainly involves transaction between the managers and their managed people while transformational leadership mainly focuses on various radical changes that can present challenges and growth for all. Comparison of Transformational and Transactional leadership approaches Transformational leadership Transactional leadership Merges own, followers and the organisations goals, desire values into common goal. Generates employee commitment to the vision. Challenges subordinate Rewards informally and personally Is emotional passionate about existing and new ventures Sees home and work on a continuum Aims to maintain equilibrium and status quo Is task-centred and orderly Coaches and fosters sheltered learning Uses extrinsic rewards High self-interest Sees home and work as separate entities. Adapted from- Gallow and Gopee (2009), Leadership and Management in Healthcare, page-59 Limitations of transformational theory: Although transformational leadership skills are highly desirable for effective functioning of an organisation, many management theorists like Bass, Avoliio and Goodheim (1987) think that transformational leadership alone can cause problem in long time. According to them transformational qualities must be coupled with more transactional qualities of day to day managerial role. According to Bass and colleagues, the transformational leader will fail without the traditional management skills. (Marquis and Huston 2009). They believe both sets of characteristics should be present in same person in different proportion. In Johnsons (2005) research he suggested that highly effective managers require both vision as well as specific plan to carry out their plans for achieving goals. Concept of leadership within the British National Health Service The New Labour Government included leadership as the part of their modernisation of the NHS and has been enshrined in the work of the NHS Leadership Centre, created in 2001as a part of NHS Modernisation Agency (The NHS Plan, DH 2000). The centre launched the NHS Leadership Qualities Framework in 2002 (NHS Leadership centre 2003) the components of this framework contains 15 qualities organised in 3 clusters of setting direction, personal and delivering the service. Components of NHS Leadership Qualities Framework Setting direction Personal qualities Delivering the service Broad scanning Intellectual flexibility Seizing the future Political astuteness Drive for results Self belief Self awareness Self management Drive for achievement Personal integrity Empowering others Holding to account Leading change through people Effective and strategic influencing Collaborative working These qualities reflect the values and beliefs intrinsic within the Governments political stance. Here the emphasis is on personal attributes and qualities as opposed to that of traditional source of authority and power or target driven incentives derived from business culture (Jumaa 2005). These qualities are considered as a set of key characteristics, attitudes and behaviours that a leader must possess in order to deliver the NHS plan; Setting the standard for leadership in NHS Assessing and developing high performance in leadership Integrating leadership across the service and related agency Individual and organisational assessment Adapting leadership to suit changing context. Case studies to demonstrate effectiveness of leadership theories. Case study 1. To measure the effectiveness of the new leadership framework in NHS, healthcare commission (now-Care Quality Commission) conducted a NHS staff survey. It was conducted in October 2003 and is probably the largest workforce survey in world. Total 572 organisations took part and around 203,911 NHS employees responded to the survey questionnaire. (www.cqc.org.uk) Results were produced before Healthcare Commission Executive Anna Walker. According to the survey more than 200,000 staff people told they liked working with NHS. Most of them were satisfied with their jobs but some part of the staff reported poorer work-life balance and higher level of work related stress. Thus healthcare commission urged NHS organisations to investigate and address these issues and try to get solution for it through more effective leadership approach. The fifth annual national survey of NHS staff was conducted between October and December 2007. In this survey 156,000 employees from all 391 NHS trusts in England responded to a questionnaire asking about their views and experience of working with the NHS. The aim of this survey was to look at the attitudes and experience of NHS staff so that the employers can review their own staff and take necessary action. The results of the survey showed that job satisfaction remained high among most of the staff. 75% of staff was satisfied or very satisfied as well as satisfaction with the amount of responsibility. While in terms of staff engagement mixed results were seen. Around only 23% i.e. less than quarter of staff agreed that senior managers involve staff in important decisions and only 22% agreed that communication between staff and senior management is effective. While only 26% of staff were satisfied, or very satisfied with the extent to which trust values their work. This was the sing le most common reason given by those thinking of leaving their jobs. Along with this 8% of staff said they had experienced some discrimination at work in the previous 12 months. About 3% said they had been discriminated against their ethnic background. Thus it can be concluded from the above two studies that the NHS staff were generally satisfied with their jobs. However there were some areas where significant action is needed for improvement. The NHS should also make some effective plans to value staff and engage them successfully in important decisions-making. While NHS should also do more in order to improve the communication between staff and senior management. Case study 2. The Healthcare Commission also conducted 5 surveys in 2004 to find out patients overall experience about the new NHS. The questionnaires and methodology were designed by the NHS Surveys Advice Centre at Picker institute Europe. About 850 eligible people were identified from each trust that took part. A total of 568 NHS organisations and 312,348 patients took part. The response rate for the patients varied from 63% for the adult in patient survey and 42% for the mental health survey. Results were published in first week of august 2004 and the Commission reported that patients gave positive opinions about the high quality care they received at the NHS. Majority of patients said they have trust and confidence in the clinical staff. They are listened to and treated with lot of dignity. Thus a great improvement in communication between the NHS staff and patients was seen and people were allowed to give their own suggestions regarding the facilities they would like to see as an improvement for the organisation. (Jasper and Jumaa 2005) Case study 3. The following case study is based on my experience of working at a Multinational Pharmaceutical company, Zydus-Cadila healthcare limited, India. It is an innovative global pharmaceutical company that discovers, manufacture and markets a wide range of healthcare products. It produces products like Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients (API) to formulations like tablets, capsules, syrups etc Along with this it also manufactures various animal health products and cosmeceuticals. Headquarter of the company is located in Ahmedabad, India. It also has its offices spread across four continents and different countries including USA, Europe, Japan, Brazil, South Africa and 25 other emerging markets. They employ around 10,000 employees worldwide and have one of the best Research and Development centre for drug research. The motto of the group is Improving peoples lives through innovation. I had an opportunity to work there as a trainee for my under graduation internship for a duration of 6 months. My role included looking after the process involved in operation of different departments like production, packaging, storage, marketing and submitting daily report to the manager. The whole company was perfectly organised and the management was distributed in a systematic manner depending on the type of department. There were different mangers according to the department like for Human-Resource department, Production department, Quality-control department, RD (Research and development) department and the Marketing department. Each of the department had a head person above them under whose guidance all mangers used to work. According to me, the leadership approach in this organisation contained both transactional as well as transformational concepts of leadership theories. The manager under whom I used to work was a transactional leader. He was very particular about the work. Right from the first day of my training I found him a bit eccentric. He was not at all friendly with all of us working under him. He used to assign each of us a particular work for a day. For example- On the first day of my training I was told to go and check the ware house of the company where the finished goods were stored and to write the Standard Operating Procedure for dispensing the goods. Following his instructions we all went and did our report writing work. He came for a visit within 3 hours, gathered all of us and started asking questions about what we observed. Those who were unable to answer his question were scolded. He gave us first warning about our work and said those who will complete their work early and accuratel y will have the additional benefit i.e. they will be allowed to go home 1 hour early. This thing worked as an incentive amongst all of us and thus we became more enthusiastic towards our work. Slowly over a time it was realised that the way he was leading us was different from others. For him the sole purpose was getting the work done from us in such a way that each one of us feels excited about work. He was very professional at work while very jovial and friendly at home. He was totally task oriented and orderly person. He never accepted any ideas or suggestions from any of the followers. Thus he was more of a transactional type manager. The other type of manager under whom we were working is completely opposite of the above mentioned manager. He was our marketing department manager. He was a true example of transformational leader. The way he used to lead us was truly inspirational. He used to explain us the complete process before handling any work. He was very supportive at work and had a vision for companys success. His communication and motivation skills were excellent. Right from the first day of my training under him we liked working with him. He always welcomed new ideas and suggestions for marketing. He was very much focused about his vision and always strives hard to achieve it. He had good interactions with everybody in the team and always used to motivate us. He used to look at everybodys work personally and if he will notice any mistake in our work would teach how to correct it on the spot only. He used to ask for the feedback about his new ideas from each of us and correct himself if the feedback was no t satisfactory. This shows his eagerness to work with the team which created positive effects on each of the team members. He was never after rewards from the company. His only aim was taking companys sales to the epitome of success. He was fully dedicated to the company and worked with whole heartedness. Thus all of us used to work with great enthusiasm under his leadership. So he can be described as a perfect example of transformational leader. Hence the company Zydus-Cadila Healthcare limited has a mixture of transformational and transactional leaders which ultimately results in the success of company. Conclusion The essay here explains about various leadership theories in healthcare and its effectiveness by the use of some case studies. Healthcare organizations are complex in nature. It requires a well balanced management and leadership approaches to effectively run the organisation. Each individual in organisation should share their knowledge with others. This synergy among workers is the key part for generation of new ideas and concepts for the organisation. Many leadership theories have been developed since past and still it is continuously adapting a new change for the effective leadership theory. Considering leadership in healthcare it is seen from the example of NHS in the UK that the combination of both transactional and transformational leadership theory may be the most efficacious for an organisation. Thus the healthcare managers require leadership theories and put them in practice to make it work effectively. However, according to Grint (2005:105), one of the top secrets of leaders hip is not a list of innate skills and competences, or how much charisma you havebut whether you have a capacity to learn from you followers.
Tuesday, August 20, 2019
I believe that marijuana should be legalized. I believe that if the goverment did so the National debt would be greatly decreased by the money it would make from the taxation of marijuana and also from the decrease in law enforcement and jail cost that is caused by the "criminal" aspects of marijuana. I believe that the use of marijuana would be more likely to go down than up with the legalization of it. I believe this because half the reason some people use it is the appeal of doing something illegal. I think that marijuana is no more harmful that alcohol or nicotine and these are perfectly legal "drugs" in todays society.You have never heard of someone overdosing on Pot but you do hear of people get deathly ill from alcohol poisoning. Peolpe all over the country whine and complain about the use of Pot but at the same time hold George Washington, Ben Franklin, and the rest of our founding fathers in such high regard. Do these people not realize that these men both grew and used this "drug" they hold in such disgust. Today you see commercials on the TV about how bad marijuana is and how it impairs your judgement and can cause car accidents. A reseacher at the University of Toronto by the name of Alison Smiley in March of 1999 showed that people who use marijuana in moderate dose are more cautious drivers than those who have have a moderate amount of alcohol. She found that the marijuana users are more aware of their impairment therefore they drive slower than those under the influnce of alcohol. Even the National Institute on Drug Abuse, Bureau of Mortality Statistics studies show that more people have died do to the use of aspirin (500) than those of marijuana (0). As for the cost of what it takes to deal with the "criminals" in refernce to marijuana it would baffle most people if they knew the facts. The facts are this, in California only in 1998 marijuana accounted for 14,344 felony and 46,600 misdemeanor arrests for a total cost of some $100 million to the state. Over the past 20 years there has been a 2000% increase in prisioners due to marijuana while some serious criminals or paroled due to overcrowding. It has also been shown that CAMP (Campaign Against Marijuana Planting) has destroyed a 1/4 of a million marijuana plants in 1999 alone.
Monday, August 19, 2019
Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Parents are the best teachers. Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. Parents are the best teachers because of the amount of influence they have over us, the amount of time we spend with them, and the morals they teach us. I agree with parents are the best teachers. In general, children must learn many things such as the way to treat people, to be polite and be respect, living skill, table manners, basic positive ideas toward things, what should be done or others should not be done, or others else that children do necessarily have in daily life. Also in terms of parentsÃ¢â¬â¢ religion, their belief, and also political status as well, any thing that related to personal life are connected with parents closely. Parents who can influence children even more then teachers. Because the amount of time that spend with parents is much more then any others. By talking to them, by setting an example, and unconsciously, parentsÃ¢â¬â¢ behaviors and thoughts influence them a lot, they are the best models for children, however, itÃ¢â¬â¢s because children in childhood are the most period that can be easily influenced, no matter they show them for purpose or children learn by themselves. Children observe how their parents treat people, how to handle things happened besides them and then learn it gradually. It can simply describe why lots of tragedies or some negative things news always happened from those people who donÃ¢â¬â¢t have complete family background or their parents are not good people. Because their parents didnÃ¢â¬â¢t teach them well and their parents affect them incorrectly. I believe that I influenced by my parents deeply as well. I can have my own idea, but according to them, I know lots of things positively, to be polite and be honest, and ethic value toward many things, even accustom doing things and my hobbies are connected with them. They introduced me to a correct way and to be a good person.
Sunday, August 18, 2019
Why Do We Need Solar Energy? Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã With the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s natural resources depleting rapidly, humans must find a way to compensate. This society has milked oil, coal, gasoline, lead, uranium, and many other of these reservoirs in our Earth for hundreds of years and much has been done. Asphalt was used for our roads and highways, coal was originally used for heat before there was oil, and even water was used as a form of electricity on many rural farms. Luckily, more companies around the world are waking up to the fact that these resources will not be around forever, and that in the near future, other forms of energy will take heed. Solar energy, or energy powered by the sun, is one of the most promising. Since the sunÃ¢â¬â¢s rays create so much for the wildlife that surrounds us, why canÃ¢â¬â¢t it do the same for people? It can, and as many industries are finding out, will be around long after the other resources are gone. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã What is solar energy? To fully comprehend this, background information must be presented. How did we get to the point we are at now? Most people look to the 1973 oil embargo, where Arab delegates announced theyÃ¢â¬â¢d no longer be shipping petroleum oil to countries, such as the U.S., who had supported Israel in their conflict with Egypt. About the same time as this was announced, members of OPEC agreed to quadruple world oil prices. Focus then turned to solar energy. With barely any oil being imported, the Federal government started putting close to $400 million per year for research on solar energy. The facts were and still are ever-present: oil, coal, and nuclear energy are depletable, causing a massive amount of pollutive particles to go up into the air, which in turn causes a bounty of problems. On the other hand, solar energy is clean and renewable with no bad after effects. The actual definition of solar energy is Ã¢â¬Å"energy from the sun thatÃ¢â¬â¢s converted into thermal or electric energy.Ã¢â¬ The terminology used when discussing solar energy may be complex and difficult to understand to the average Joe. This is because not much has been done to try and explain the uses or even the way this system operates to the public. The money allocated by the government has seemed to go towards research instead of encouraging and educating the people about the benefits of renewable energy. The breakdown shows us that ... ...exchanger, radiant floor, low consumption plumbing, fresh air intake, and propane for heat, cooking, and drying of clothes. These are the essentials of one solar powered house. Yes it sounds like a lot of work, but the same amount goes into a regular home. Some solar- homeowners are attracted by the low cost of monthly bills, others by the practicality. Whichever, the benefits to the inhibitors and the environment are well worth the time and money spent. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã In summation, we can change the world like Crosby, Stills, Nash, and Young once said. It can start with one person, but will need more support in order to flourish. Solar energy is not the answer to all of the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s problems. There are constant new ones emerging each day as we humans make our everlasting impact on the planet. Yet, to get something done, one must do it himself using whatever it takes. Partnerships, group aid awareness, community action, maybe even wars, but the time for action is quickly passing us by. The environment in which we all live in and by depends on us and the way we live in this world. With voice, action, education, and funding we will start to see a new and better future.
Saturday, August 17, 2019
1. | Question Ã°Å¸Ë (TCO C) Blease Inc. has a capital budget of $625,000, and it wants to maintain a target capital structure of 60 percentÃ debt and 40 percentÃ equity. The company forecasts a net income of $475,000. If it follows the residual dividend policy, what is its forecasted dividend payout ratio? (a) 40. 61% (b) 42. 75% (c) 45. 00% (d) 47. 37% (e) 49. 74% | | | Student Answer:| Ã | (d) 47. 37 Equity required (Residual income) = $625,000*40% = $250,000 Dividend paid = $475,000 Ã¢â¬â $250,000 = $225,000 Dividend payout ratio = 225000/475000 = 47. 37% | Ã | Instructor Explanation:| Answer is: dText: pp. 570-572 Ã¢â¬â Residual Dividends, Chapter 14 Capital budget $625,000 Equity ratio 40% Net income (NI) $475,000 Dividends paid = NI Ã¢â¬â (Equity ratio)(Capital budget) $225,000 Dividend payout ratio = Dividends paid/NI 47. 37% | | | | Points Received:| 10 of 10 | | Comments:| | | | 2. | Question Ã°Å¸Ë (TCO F) The following data applies to Saunders Corpora tion's convertible bonds: Maturity: 10 Stock price: $30. 00 Par value: $1,000. 00 Conversion price: $35. 00 Annual coupon: 5. 00% Straight-debt yield: 8. 00% What is the bond's conversion value? (a) $698. 15 (b) $734. 89 (c) $773. 57 (d) $814. 29 e) $857. 14 | | | Student Answer:| Ã | (e) $857. 14 Conversion ratio = Par value / Conversion Price= 28. 5714 =1000/35 Current share price= $30. 00 Therefore, conversion value of the bond= $857. 14 =28. 5714Ãâ"30 | Ã | Instructor Explanation:| Answer is: e Chapter 19: pp. 770-774 Conversion value = Conversion ratio x Market price of stock = $857. 14 | | | | Points Received:| 10 of 10 | | Comments:| | | | 3. | Question Ã°Å¸Ë (TCO B) SA Ã¢â¬â Your firm has debt worth $350,000, with a yield of 12. 5 percent, and equity worth $700,000. It is growing at aÃ seven percent rate, and faces a 40 percent tax rate.A similar firm with no debt has a cost equity of 17 percent. Under the MM extension with growth, what is its cost of equity? ( a) 19. 25% (b) 21. 75% (c) 18. 0% (d) 17. 5% (e) 18. 4% | | | Student Answer:| Ã | | | Instructor Explanation:| A is correct. Instructor Explanation: M & M Extension with Growth Ã¢â¬â Section 26. 4 (pp. 1011-1015) rsL = rsU + (rsU Ã¢â¬â rd)(D/S) 19. 25% = 17% + (17%-12. 5%)(350,000/700,000)| | | | Points Received:| 10 of 20 | | Comments:| this is you emailed solution Ã¢â¬â 4. (TCO B) SA Ã¢â¬â Your firm has debt worth $350,000, with a yield of 12. 5 percent, and equity worth $700,000.It is growing at a seven percent rate, and faces a 40 percent tax rate. A similar firm with no debt has a cost equity of 17 percent. Under the MM extension with growth, what is its cost of equity? My answer is: (d) 17. 5% rsL = rsU + (rsU Ã¢â¬â rd)(D/S) 17. 5% = 15% + (15%-10%)(200,000/400,000 I am not sure where you got the 15% number for the rsU or the 200,000 for D or the 400,000 for S the calculations and formula are correct but you used all incorrect inputs so I will give you 1/2 cr edit A is correct. Instructor Explanation: M & M Extension with Growth Ã¢â¬â Section 26. (pp. 1011-1015) rsL = rsU + (rsU Ã¢â¬â rd)(D/S) 19. 25% = 17% + (17%-12. 5%)(350,000/700,000) | | | 4. | Question Ã°Å¸Ë (TCO B) Firm L has debt with a market value of $200,000 and a yield of nine percent. The firm's equity has a market value of $300,000, its earnings are growing at aÃ five percentÃ rate, and its tax rate is 40 percent. A similar firm with no debt has a cost of equity of 12 percent. Under the MM extension with growth, what would Firm L's total value be if it had no debt? (a) $358,421 (b) $377,286 (c) $397,143 (d) $417,000 (e) $437,850 | | Student Answer:| Ã | (c) $397,143 VTotal = VU + VTS, so VU = VTotal Ã¢â¬â VTS = D + S Ã¢â¬â VTS. Value tax shelter = VTS = rdTD/(rsU Ã¢â¬â g) = 0. 09(0. 40)($200,000)/(0. 12 Ã¢â¬â 0. 05) = $102,857 VU = $300,000 + $200,000 Ã¢â¬â $102,857 = $397,143 | Ã | Instructor Explanation:| Answer is: c Chapter 26, pp. 1011-1 015 Debt: $200,000 Equity: $300,000 rd: 9% rsU : 12% T: 40% g: 5% Firm L has a total value of $200,000 + $300,000 = $500,000. A similar firm with no debt should have a smaller valu(e) Here is the calculation: VTotal = VU + VTS, so VU = VTotal Ã¢â¬â VTS = D + S Ã¢â¬â VTS. Value tax shelter = VTS = rdTD/(rsU Ã¢â¬â g) = 0. 9(0. 40)($200,000)/(0. 12 Ã¢â¬â 0. 05) = $102,857 VU = $300,000 + $200,000 Ã¢â¬â $102,857 = $397,143 | | | | Points Received:| 20 of 20 | | Comments:| | | | 5. | Question Ã°Å¸Ë (TCO A) Which of the following statements is CORRECT? (a) An option's value is determined by its exercise value, which is the market price of the stock less its striking price. Thus, an option can't sell for more than its exercise value. (b) As the stockÃ¢â¬â¢s price rises, the time value portion of an option on a stock increases because the difference between the price of the stock and the fixed strike price increases. c) Issuing options provides companies with a low cost method of raising capital. (d) The market value of an option depends in part on the option's time to maturity and also on the variability of the underlying stock's price. (e) The potential loss on an option decreases as the option sells at higher and higher prices because the profit margin gets bigger. | | | Student Answer:| Ã | (c) Issuing options provides companies with a low cost method of raising capital. | Ã | Instructor Explanation:| Answer is: d Chapter 8, pp. 306-310 | | | | Points Received:| 0 of 20 | Comments:| Companies do not issue Options Ã¢â¬â they are a trading vehicle of the exchanges Ã¢â¬â no capital from options go to the firm | | | 6. | Question Ã°Å¸Ë (TCO F) Suppose the December CBOT Treasury bond futures contract has a quoted price of 80-07. What is the implied annual interest rate inherent in the futures contract? Assume this contract is based on a 20 year Treasury bond with semi-annual interest payments. The face value of the bond is $1000, and th e semi-annual coupon payments are $30. The annual coupon rate on the bonds is $60 per bond (or 6%).The futures contract has 100 bonds. (a) 6. 86% (b) 7. 22% (c) 7. 60% (d) 8. 00% (e) 8. 40% | | | Student Answer:| Ã | (d) 8% Quote: 80Ã¢â¬â¢07 0. 80 0. 07 N: 40 PV = (0. 80+0. 07/32) ? $1,000 = -$802. 1875 FV = $1,000 PMT = $30 I/YR = 4. 00% Annual rate: I/YR ? 2 = 8. 00% | Ã | Instructor Explanation:| Answer is: d Chapter 23, pp. 917-923 Answer Detail: Quote: 80-07 0. 80 0. 07 N: 40 PV = (0. 80+0. 07/32) ? $1,000 = -$802. 1875 FV = $1,000 PMT = $30 I/YR = 4. 00% Annual rate: I/YR ? 2 = 8. 00% | | | | Points Received:| 20 of 20 | | Comments:| | | | | |
Friday, August 16, 2019
NEWSLETTER ARTICLE URBANISATION DYNAMICS AND ITS IMPACTS ON THE USE OF NATURAL RESOURCES IN MOSHI Ã¢â¬â KILIMANJARO, TANZANIA By Isaac Kazungu1 and Maulid Bwabo2 Half the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s population now live in built-up areas, with an estimated 60 million people being added every year (World Bank population Index report, 2010). This rapid urban growth leads to environmental degradation and excessive demands on services, infrastructure and use of natural resource in rapidly urbanising cities of the world, Moshi inclusive. Resource degradation, energy consumption, conflicts on he use of resources has increased drastically. To address this a three (3) years project titled LUNA (Livelihoods, Urbanisation, Natural Resources in Africa) financed by Volkswagen Foundation of Germany established within Five African Countries, namely Tanzania (Moshi), Cameroon (Bamenda), Botswana (Palapye), Cote dÃ¢â¬â¢Ivoire (Tyasale) and South Africa (Phalaborwa-Limpopo, and QueenstownEastern Cape). It sta rted in 2009 and aimed at analysing the impact of urbanisation on the use of natural resources and livelihoods in Africa. 1Isaac Kazungu is Assistant Lecturer and Researchers working with the Department of Marketing at Moshi University College of Cooperative and Business Studies (MUCCoBS). His main areas of interest include Agricultural Marketing, Marketing research, International marketing, Livelihoods and Urbanization. He is a member of LUNA a team of researchers from Five African countries and Germany undertaking a project on Urbanization and its impact on the use of Natural Resources in Africa. 2 Maulid Bwabo is Assistant Lecturer and Researchers in theDepartment of Marketing at Moshi University College of Cooperative and Business Studies (MUCCoBS). Among the other disciplines, he specialises in Food crops marketing, Strategic marketing review and Marketing audit. He is also a member of LUNA a team of researchers from Five African countries and Germany undertaking a project on U rbanization and its impact on the use of Natural Resources in Africa In Tanzania the project was undertaken in Moshi Municipality along the slope of Mountain Kilimanjaro-the highest Mountain in Africa. It explored nine (9) settlements in both rban and peri-urban areas of the city. These settlements include Mweka, Uru, Kibosho, Karanga, Kwa sadala, Pasua Matindigani, Pasua Kanisani, Kiusa, Uchira Mashingia. Livelihoods and settlements characteristics, resource availability and utilisation, settlement growth dynamics and challenges, economic activities and geographical locations are some remarkable areas explored. The result of the project built on what researchers explore about the problem, their insights and values using both evidence based and reflections. The results spin on poor enforcement of urban development policies, rban agricultural product additions and branding, promotion of traditional crops which enhance livelihoods of the poor resource and disadvantaged groups, harassm ent of the city authority, conflicts on the use of water infrastructure, insecurity to land tenure, difficulties in capitalisation of financial institutions mortgages and marketing informations. Others include inadequate horizontal and vertical linkages of local communities, associations and interested parties, compensation considerations, changing of the peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s mindset of farmers in production process and partnerships, fragmentation ofAfrican land use planning system, member based transformation efforts from informality to formality, poor governance. Likely, the question of ill staff in planning department and structural conflicts are some remarkable policy and practical development, which are potential for policy formulation and improvement for our country development. Key issues noted during this investigation calls for policy interventions and alternative on the reality. In additional, networking, capacity building on which young scientists (2 Master students from MUCCo BS) were trained through this project.NEWSLETTER ARTICLE of urbanisation and the use of natural resources within a planned and sustainable way to enhance residents in growth and their development processes. Notwithstanding, the project creates a good link of development cooperation between the North and South, which is among the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s policy development agenda. LUNA team-Tanzania, left to right; Bwabo, Dr. Wakuru Magigi and Isaac Kazungu (Photo by Takemore Chogomoka) Issues noted during the project exploration are central to different actors interested in Urban development and poverty reduction in rapidly rbanising cities. These actors include government, development partners, local communities/co-operators, non-governmental organisations, higher learning institutions, local government authorities and policy makers. The finding may be addressed for enhancing the link Acknowledgements: Dr. Wakuru Magigi-LUNA country coordinator, Urban planner and Senior Lecturer MUCCoBS, V olkswagen Stiftung Foundation, the management of MZUMBE University and MUCCoBS. Contacts:[emailÃ protected] com, [emailÃ protected] com Web: http://www. luna-project. uni-freiburg. de/ http://www. muccobs. ac. tz
At the age of five he advanced to home of the student, where he got scolded for learning faster then his brothers. Equality teachers told him that he had evil in his bones because he was taller then his brothers. Then at the age of fifteen when the house of v actions came Equality was guilty of the great transgression of preference because he wanted d to be a scholar, but his selected vocation was to be a street sweeper. Every day while he sweep t by the fields he would watch and smile at Liberty and she would smile back. Liberty was a woo man that worked in the home of the peasants.Making contact with a woman was prohibited buy t for when in the palace of the mating. The palace of the mating was where people were forced to breed. Equality thought touching a woman was shameful and ugly. The! En one day while he s wept the streets he found a grate that led to underground tunnel full of things from the unmeant enable times. For two years he went to the tunnel and discovered a new glowi ng light. Then one day while in the tunnel decided that he must share his secret with his brothers. He decided that he w loud bring his secret in front of the world council meeting.When Equality entered the world council I meeting the scholars got frightened and angry. They demanded that he tell them why he was there. He connected the wires and they glowed, the scholars backed up against the wall as they stared in horror. They told him that he they were going to punish for breaking so many laws. Equality trembled in fright he quickly grabbed the light and ran to the uncharted foresee t. No man followed because they feared the unknown. Those are all the ways in which Equality reek acted the view of society. The uncharted forest represented freedom.When Equality spent his first night in the rest when he woke up he laughed and rolled through the leaves and the MO as because he realized he was free which meant no more waking up to a bell, no more meal s prepared for him, and no more swe eping streets. Then as he walked through the forest he cam e too river he stopped and looked in the water for the first time in his whole life he saw ha t he looked like. When he saw his reflection it surprised him he did not look like his brothers h e looked stronger than his brothers who looked short and fragile.The next day in the forest he had heard footsteps behind him he turned around and it was Liberty. She had heard of what he did d and followed his path into the forest. While in the forest Equality hugged Liberty and realized t hat holding the body of a woman was not shameful. They walked for many days the farther t hey went from the city the safer they felt. Ã¢â¬Å"Everything which comes from the many is good. Every thing that come from one is evil. Ã¢â¬ Any Rand wrote this in the end of the ninth chapter when CEQ laity begins to doubt everything he has learned in the city. The mountains represented a en w beginning.In the mountains Equality and Liberty found a house le ft from the unmentionable it sees. In the house there are many things they have never seen before like mirrors, light bulbs, a library full of books, and nice clothes. They promise to never leave the house and they claim m it as theirs. They learn the word I while reading books from the huge library. Equality also name sees Liberty and himself, while reading through a book he learns of Prometheus who was a ma n who stole fire from the gods and taught men use the power of gods. Prometheus was punish heed as are all who bring light to men. He also reads of Gage who mother of the gods and of earth h.