Wednesday, October 30, 2019

Capturing the knowledge of individuals Assignment

Capturing the knowledge of individuals - Assignment Example This one challenge is the one that makes the modern expert systems to be unable to operate like humans do. Although these systems are not entirely perfect for delivering decisions like human beings, they do have a number of useful elements that make it worth investing in them. These knowledge systems can be used to help the organization on knowledge management. According to Malhotra (2000) one of the biggest advantages in the form of knowledge with these systems is that, unlike human experts, they don’t leave the firm and they don’t die. Knowledge and expertise held by these systems can stay in the organization forever as long as it is protected from physical damage. They therefore provide the firm with consistence knowledge over time and are able to make sure that this knowledge is always available. It is prudent for any firm to invest in this system because even if they cannot replace the experts completely, they are very useful in knowledge management. Expert systems are knowledge systems which helps the organization to not only store information but to also utilize it. They make it possible for the organization to store useful expert knowledge which can then be used by other experts and aids in decision making. The main importance of expert systems is that when correctly used, they gather the information from the experts of the organization and store this information in the form of knowledge. These systems don’t just gather information and data but rather.

Monday, October 28, 2019

Life as a Female Slave Under the Code of Hammurabi Essay Example for Free

Life as a Female Slave Under the Code of Hammurabi Essay I am a female slave, given into slavery for 4 years by my father, he owed a debt that he could not pay. A debt for grain that he was to pay back 3 fold. The debt collector would have taken what little we had and perhaps would have made father pay with his life if Hammurabi had not made a way for my family to cancel our debt in this way. It is only for 4 years, such a long time for so little a debt, but we are fortunate to have this option. I will be provided with the basic necessities for survival. I am counted as nothing more than property, or currency, for my Master. I am not considered human. I was formerly a member of the middle class, paupers that can farm. There are only three classes in our society, the wealthy, the poor, and the slaves. Now, I am a slave for the next four years. It is very common practice, so much so that even the poor have slaves. Our most common forms of currency are grain, silver, slaves, cattle, and livestock. As you can imagine, I am not alone in my experience in slavery. Many of my peers are or have been enslaved at least once in their lives. Both my mother and father were slaves at some point. Many female slaves usually end up with their Master for many more years than the 4 required by law. After 4 years, they are no longer slaves and are often in the same class as the man they have lived with. In our society many children are products of those relationships. Until the time of slavery is up, I must work off a debt. I am not permitted to deny my Master, or I could be punished. One such punishment could involve having my ears cut off. This is not very common. Many of us understand we are here to work and that we must be submissive to avoid conflict. As I mentioned we will be allowed the basic necessities, food and water, and protection from the environment if the weather is harsh. The laws of how I live as a female and as a slave are outlined in Hammurabi’s Code. Hammurabi is a fair and just man. I feel his laws are fair and just given my position and given the alternatives that could have taken place if my father’s debt went unpaid. And to lose an ear and not a life for disobedience is more than fair. Hammurabi has provided us with options which has been beneficial for us at this time. We all know the laws. We can all read and understand them. Our officials rule by the law and laws pertain to everyone. For example, I am safe with my Master, should anyone take me from my Master- he could be put to death.. Everyone in the city knows this law and should someone see another take me from my Master, they will notify officials. The officials will investigate the matter. The person who takes me could be put to death. Few people risk this. Also, should my Master lend me out to another man and that man harm me, he would have to pay my Master fines for the damage he caused. It is very difficult for the common man to pay fines, so little harm is ever done to a slave that is on loan. Slavery here is not a social stigma. I am of the same class as the majority and speak the same language. Business and practicality are more important here than ideology, thus it is more beneficial for a Master to have strong, healthy slaves for commercial purposes. The law is clear and written out and encourages this kind of a society. Physical abuse is not very common among our people, but it is used in extreme cases. I was very surprised when studying this to discover that laws regarding slavery in the United States, while similar in many ways, were more harsh than the laws for the slaves in a more primitive environment. For example, the Code of Hammurabi stipulates that if a slave is given in trade for a debt it is for a period of 4 years. In the Unites States, the slave codes suggested that slavery was a life long event. There was no limit to the length of time a person could be a slave. I could not find many similarities, with the exception that it was not uncommon for female slaves to bear children with their Masters. In further research I found evidence that slaves in Babylonian captivity not too long after the Code of Hammurabi was implemented, owned property and were allowed to trade. Some even made more money than their Masters. So, I could not really compare and contrast the Code of Hammurabi with the Slave Codes of the Southern States, which was not only disappointing but deeply troubling. The one thing that does stand out as the most obvious similarity to something we are familiar with today is the epilogue to the Code of Hammurabi and the Preamble of the US Constitution. Both introduced a set of laws that were created to protect the people, provide a basis for justice, promote the welfare, ensure prosperity. Actually, I believe Hammurabi said it best, â€Å"That the strong might not injure the weak†.

Friday, October 25, 2019

Free Essays: Impact of the Word on Dickinson :: Biography Biographies Essays

Impact of the Word on Dickinson In Donald E. Thackrey’s essay "The Communication of the Word," he talks about how "the power of the individual word, in particular, seems to have inspired her with nothing less than reverence" (51). Dickinson approached her poetry inductively, that is, she combined words to arrive at whatever conclusion the patterns of the words suggested, rather than starting out with a specific theme or message. Instead of purposefully working toward a final philosophical point, Dickinson preferred to use series of "staccato" inspirations (51). Dickinson frequently used words with weight in her work, and as a result her works usually cannot be grasped fully in one reading without dissecting each word individually. Often Dickinson would compile large, alternative word lists for a poetry before she would come to a decision on which word was "just right" for the impact she wished to achieve (52). For example, this poem displays Dickinson’s use of alternative, thesaurus-like lists: Had but the tale a thrilling, typic, hearty, bonnie, breathless, spacious, tropic, warbling, ardent, friendly, magic, pungent, winning, mellow teller All the boys would come— Orpheus’s sermon captivated, It did not condemn.    Eventually, Dickinson came to rest on the word "warbling," but one can see the meticulous care that she put into the decision on which word to use. Another poem of Dickinson’s that shows her compositional method is "Shall I Take Thee?" the Poet Said." In this poem, Dickinson discusses from where the power of the world comes. "Shall I take thee?" the poet said To the propounded word. "Be stationed with the candidates Till I have further tried."    The poet probed philology And when about to ring For the suspended candidate, There came unsummoned in    That portion of the vision The word applied to fill. Not unto nomination The cherubim reveal. In the preceding poem, one can see the artistic style come through her composition. The best representation of that particular idea comes from the author Donald Thackrey when he says: It is significant that the revealed word comes "unsummoned" in a flash of intuition†¦.and yet the implication of the poem is that the revealing of the word must be preceded by the preparatory, conscious, rational effort of probing philology†¦She [Dickinson] herself was well aware that inspiration, while all-sufficient when present, seldom came even to a great poet.

Thursday, October 24, 2019

Implications of the Bertrand Model

In 1893 French economist Joseph Bertrand developed his Bertrand model of competition from his review of Antoine Cournots study of a Spring Water duopoly. His criticism lay with how firms in oligopolies compete. In his model firms compete with prices rather than Cornots quantities. (REFERENCE TO SPANISH JOURNAL) The model consists of two firms who set prices simultaneously and independently (HUGH GRAVIELLE AND AY REES, MICROECONOMICES), jean tiral explains this as when one firm sets its price it is ignorant to its rival’s price, rather it â€Å"anticipates† what they will charge. It is assumed products are homogeneous and perfect substitutes (ECCSTRAT) and due to the nature of the product the firm supplying output at the lowest price will gain the entire market demand. (GB! ) This firm will have to supply all the forthcoming demand at the price they have set; gb1 from this an important assumption of the model is that there are no capacity constraints, that both firms have the same marginal cost, which remains constant, and that demand is liner. GB2 As stated, the entire market demand for homogeneous products will go to the firm offering the lowest price, although if both firms were to sell at the same price â€Å"a sharing rule must be assumed† GB2. Using an example from the ((((((( lets suppose the market demand for a homogeneous product is given by, Q = 120-p (where Q is quantity demanded and p is price charged). The marginal cost (MC) for both producers is, C=$30, and both producers sell output at p=c=$30. The demand for each producer is Q=0. 5*120-p=45. Lets say producer A increased their price to c=$31, the entire market demand would transfer to producer B who would now have a demand function of Qb=120-c=90, while producer A would have zero demand. However if producer A had reduced their price to c=$29, they would capture the entire market demand through charging the lowest cost, however they would make a $1 loss in each product sold. From this, the Nash equilibrium for the Bertrand model lies where P=MC, with demand so heavily influenced by price producers do not want to be undercut by rivals. With P=MC no rival will undercut as zero profits are preferable to negative profits, and any firm trying to charge above the MC and make positive profits will receive no sales. The suggestion is the addition of one firm restores perfect market competition (Jean Tirole, 1998), moving the market form monopoly power and profits (maximum inefficiency) to perfectly competitive (maximum efficiency). It had been deemed a paradox as it is difficult to believe that two firms in a duopolistic market can make zero profits. We are able to resolve Bertrand’s paradox through relaxing and of the three integral assumptions of the model (intro to industrial org l. M. B Cabrail). In order to analyse its practical relevance and its implications, this essay will now give examples of where the paradox can be deconstructed. The first example of a solution comes from a combination of two assumptions, the first is the absence of capacity constraints, and the second firms make decisions independently. In the model whichever firm firm is charging the lowest price will receive the entire market demand, and is â€Å"expected to supply all forthcoming demand at the price it has set† (old xavior). There are few situations in the real world where one firm could satisfy the demand of the whole market. Using the previous example, producer B gained the entire market demand (Q=120-$30=90). Let’s assume producer B has a capacity constraint below 90 units. There is now a proportion of the market that can only be satisfied by producer A, who can use monopoly power and make positive profits as the only producer. (managerial Economics a strategic approach). This example shows how with the inclusion of a common real world problem, Bertrand’s proposed equilibrium of price equal to marginal cost is deconstructed. A second implication of capacity constraints is their effect on collision between firms. Collusion reduces market competiveness, firms tactically agree to set prices above particular levels and to not to engage in price wars,(REF). A positive relationship between excess capacity and collusion was identified by David and Deneckere, who found excess capacity is a â€Å"prerequisite for stable collusion† while it provides a â€Å"stronger bargaining position within cartels† (QUOTE TO JOURNALS THAT ARE ON JUIBILEE AND WOLF). These effects have been see in oil cartel OPEC, which has existed since the second world war and where the largest producer, Saudi Arabia can flood the market if small producers â€Å"cheat† on their quotas. (paul Pijush). Through years of controlling supply and therefore price the carte will receive one trillion dollars in revenues this year, (Wall street post). The prisoners dilemma is â€Å"a particular game between two captured prisoners that illustrates why cooperation is difficult to maintain even when mutually beneficial† (REF). It helps to demonstrate the logic behind Bertrand’s Paradox. Both firms would benefit from charging a price higher than marginal cost, however at this level both firms have an incentive to undercut one another. (managerial economics). If the rules of the game can be changed each agent would receive a higher revenue payoff. (Global Business Mike W peng). Two companies who saw this were General Electric (GE) and Westinghouse. In the early 1960s these two companies controlled over 98% of the US market for large turbine generators. Prior to purchase, electric utilities would negotiate with GE and Westinghouse who, as in Bertrand competition, competed on price. Government owned utilities accounted for twenty five percent of the market share and by law had to purchase from the cheapest provider and publish the price. The two firms generated low profit, as Bertrand competition predicts, until GE ‘changed the rules of the game’ by introducing a price book. The process effectively set a higher market price and guaranteed higher profits, the price publishing behaviour continued successfully until 1975 when the US Department of Justice investigated the industry. Price books were ruled to breach anti-competition laws and the firms were fined. The book, Technology and Transformation in the American Electric Utility Industry by Richard F. Hirsh goes into this example in much greater depth. This is an important example as it demonstrates that Bertrand competition can exist in the real world. However the assumption of zero profits, or in the example, low profits encourages companies to collude to set higher prices and make positive profits. The Bertrand model also assumes that with the entrant of a second firm into the market, and the subsequent Nash equilibrium, price equal to marginal cost, removes the need for policy makers to intervene. However form the previous example this is obviously false as policy makers did have to intervene and sanctions were made. To stress this point, another example; Pakistan’s Federal Cabinet moved powers of oil price fixation to the Oil Companies Advisory Committee in 2001, through flawed polices profits of the duopolists Pakistan State Oil and Shell Pakistan increased by 232% between 2001 to 2005. which lead to further state involvement to enforce price restrictions and encourage competition. (competition reporter. 25,05,2009). In the Bertrand model we assumed that both firms had the same costs of production which remain constant. It is an extreme assumption that two firms would incur exactly the same costs when producing their products, let us now assume that one firm had a cost advantage, i. e. firm A can produce marginally less expensively that firm B (cA

Wednesday, October 23, 2019

Stages through developmental psychology

The Life of Juan Leonardo from Birth Through Adolescence Diver University John Smith This report is based on the adolescent life of Juan Leonardo, who is 17 years old and a senior in High School. I interviewed Jean's mother Maria Leonardo. She weighs around 150 lbs and she is 5'5 inches tall. She has the ability to obtain and apply many are that she is loyal, she is devoted, she had an affectionate family upbringing, aspiring, ambitious and she has always been highly motivated. She does what she can to better her family life.She is extroverted and she enjoys social interactions and tends to be enthusiastic, verbal, assertive, and active. She told me that she enjoys large social gatherings, such as parties and cooking large meals for her family and friends. She is a nurturer and a caregiver. Her weaknesses are that Maria is very talkative and not a good listener at times. She has no history of any medical issues in her family. Maria believes that the best thing in life is family and t hat is what she values most. All through her pregnancy she had no issue with her health. She talks bout the early symptoms which include headaches, nausea and lower backaches.In the first three months of her pregnancy, Maria said she slept more often, but it was a restless sleep. She felt sleepier during the day and was having more difficulty sleeping at night than before she was pregnant. She knew that she needed to eat healthy for her and her son, so she made sure that she increased her intake of protein, folic acid, iron and calories. She was twenty six years old when she got pregnant with Juan. Maria felt that she was very active while pregnant with Juan cause she already had two other young children and she was always running around after them.She didn't smoke or drink alcohol during any of her pregnancies. She did have a lot of prenatal care from her doctor and never missed any appointments. Juan fell in the 95th percentile at 36 months on the growth chart. He was extremely br ight and he had the abilities to learn very fast. Maria said Juan did everything a little faster than an ordinary child. His cognitive abilities with memory and problem solving were above average and Maria felt he was always learning to do wings by himself. He exhibited the Piglet's seniority thinking and operational thinking.Even though during his seniority stage he had limited knowledge of the world, he still was more advanced than others is age. During his operational stage he started reading and he definitely exceeded the expected milestones. During his first stage of the Erosion's psychosocial stage, Juan was very nurtured by his mother Maria so he gained a lot of trust in her and he had a very secure attachment. Juan wanted to do everything by himself, like using the toilet by myself and brushing his teeth during the second stage. Juan became more active during the third stage always rough housing with his brothers.Maria was very involved in Jean's preschool activities. She vo lunteered to come in and help out during all the class parties and events. Maria helped Juan understand his feelings, good and bad, and he was shaped to behave almost Just like the image of Maria herself. Juan showed a lot of empathy for others and was a very loving child. Because Juan was the youngest of three he always had to share with his brothers. He as very attached to his mother, never wanting to leave her side. Maria said that Juan had lots of memories growing up.They took many vacations to the ocean and camping as a family. He was always acting more than his age, very active, and loved outdoor activities like soccer and swimming. Juan had a rapid growth in height between ages 9. 5 and 14. 5, peaking at around age 13. His motor skills begin to develop earlier, which helps explain why he always seem happy drawing, coloring, painting and cutting things out of paper and she was often more satisfied sitting still s he is somewhat stalks. During elementary school years Juan was v ery advanced in doing his schoolwork.He was very physically fit as a child and he loved playing sport with other children. Though out the processes of cognitive development he was able to master problem solving, and decision-making, from childhood through to adolescence. He never lacked ideas or an opinion and he was always learning from others. Jean's father was not around after he was born so he was raised solely by his mother. They had a very close relationship and while she was very caring Maria was also very strict. She would punish her son's with timeouts and if necessary she would spank them.The lack of his father did not have any negative effects on Jean's development. Instead, Maria believes this made Juan want to be a better man for his mother and his brothers. Juan had a large circle of friends. He was never the type to stay inside playing video games or watching television. Juan loved to be outdoors and was very active, He loved soccer in basketball later in his adolesce nce and was very skilled at all physical activities he participated in, Jean's older brother's spoke tit him about sexual maturation and puberty.He developed normally and did not go through any negative effects because of this. He did not struggle with his weight because he and his brothers were so active. He was generally happy going through all the different stages in life. Maria believes in teaching a child to feels good about themselves and not to think about what others are saying. His social and emotional needs did not interfere with his way of thinking because he was always given the chance to express his feelings and thoughts with his family.Juan said that he was ware of his social status and he felt the need to behave in a way that maintains his positive image. Any behavior that may be socially unacceptable to his peers, elders, or mother was not acceptable. He was never into drugs or drinking. Juan always wanted to keep his nose clean and make Maria proud. As he was going through the four identity stage, he was most worried about his self-identity. Without a father Juan sometimes struggled making decisions that would prove he was a good young man.He questioned what was right and wrong sometimes, but he always looked to his other and thought if she would approve or not. Jean's self-esteem and values were very high, he never let any factors affects his life negatively. Juan is an honorable and respectful young man who has a bright future ahead of him. His amazing mother, Maria did a commendable Job raising him as a single mother and she is doing everything in her power to raise Juan in the right way. He is respectful and well behaved from what I learned as I was interviewing Juan and Maria. I know Juan makes his mother very proud.

Tuesday, October 22, 2019

Pond Water Essay Example

Pond Water Essay Example Pond Water Essay Pond Water Essay In all sections of the paper, present tense should be used to report background that is already established. For example, The cell membrane is the barrier which separates the inside of the cell from the outside. Use future tense for work that you will do. For example, This experiment will test the hypothesis that some anti-microbial agents can permeate the cell membrane during division to inhibit growth. Use past tense to describe the methods (what you did) and results of your experiment. A Table of Contents is not necessary. Use a regular font such as Ariel or Times New Roman at 12 size font and double spaced. HEADINGS Headings show organization and identify the topic for a section or a block of information. Capital letters, underlining, point size, and position on the page help to differentiate rank or level. For example, note how the headings of this document are uppercase and bolded. Use headings for the main sections: Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results, Discussion, and Literature Cited. TITLE PAGE Your name, date, and title of the paper should be on a cover page, and not on any other part of the paper. Your title should be specific in describing the experiment you performed. For example, Effects of a Variety of Anti-microbial Agents on Four Bacterial Cultures is much more interesting than just Anti-microbial Agents. In other words, â€Å"Pond Water† is not specific enough. ABSTRACT: A paragraph summary of the paper. See lab manual for more directions. INTRODUCTION Keep the introduction brief, but do present appropriate background nformation as well as indicate the purpose of the experiments performed. Make sure that the reader knows enough to appreciate the relevance of the work and why it is appropriate to ask the question that you will address with your study. Always state the hypothesis/prediction in your introduction. Steps for Introduction: 1. What is a pond? 2. What types of organisms can live in a pond? a. e. g. Green algae are common inhabitants of ponds (author , date). b. Just list a few organisms from each group. 3. What factors determine which organisms will live in a specific pond? a. Dissolved oxygen levels and pH levels are important factors that limit which species can survive in different ponds (author, date). 4. Purpose of the experiment and statement of the question and hypothesis – e. g. This experiment was conducted to see how the chemical and physical properties of a pond can determine the organisms living. If dissolved oxygen levels remain high then organisms will thrive in pond water. 5. There should be a lot of references to sources in this section (examples in steps 2 and 3). 6. There’s some info in the back of your lab manual that might apply here. MATERIALS AND METHODS You must document all methods performed in your study. Do not, under any circumstances, report methods word-for-word from any of the written sources you used. You need to summarize, in your own words, what you did. Also, do not give unneeded detail. For example, instead of I took up a drop of pond water from a 5 ml tube with a 2 ml plastic pipette and expelled it onto the surface of a microscope slide, write Wet mount slides containing one drop of pond water were made. † We can also see that in this latter sentence passive voice was used to report methods, a standard for most scientific publications. To give another example, one would write Cultures were maintained at 37 °C. instead of We grew the cultures at 37 °C. . Steps for Materials and Methods: 1. List the materials used. 2. When, where and how did you collect the sample? 3. How was the sample stored for the duration of the experiment? a. E. g. Pond water samples were stored under grow lights at ambient temperature in the biology lab for the duration of the experiment. 4. What measurements did you take every week and how did you do it? 5. How did you monitor changes in the organisms over time? 6. You can reference your lab manual, but there won’t be other references. RESULTS This section includes the results of your experiments. Present your data both in written form, e. g. â€Å"The dissolved oxygen concentrations decreased from 12 to 6 mg/l (Table 1)† and in figure and/or table form. You must include your data chart in your report. Tables must have legends, â€Å"e. g. Table 1. Dissolved Oxygen Concentrations†, which go at the top of the table. Figures (graphs, charts, pictures) must have legends, e. g. â€Å"Figure 1. Bar graph showing weekly dissolved oxygen levels† which go at the bottom of the figure. Do not draw conclusions in the results section. Reserve any data interpretation for the discussion. Steps: 1. Tables and/or Figures of the chemical data, qualitative and quantitative 2. Tables and/or Figures of the organism data 3. AND a written description of the data†¦ e. g. The chlorine levels increased from x to y over the five weeks of the experiment (Table 1). or†¦ In week 4 there was an increase in the amount of cyanobacteria (Figure 1). 4. Whenever you refer to a piece of data in the text, indicate which figure or table it can be found in. 5. No references. DISCUSSION Interpret your data in the discussion. Decide if each hypothesis is supported, rejected, or if you cannot make a decision with confidence. Do not simply dismiss a study or part of a study as inconclusive. Make what conclusions you can, then suggest how the experiment must be modified in order to properly test the hypothesis(es). Explain all of your observations as much as possible, focusing on what caused them. 1. Try to figure out why you saw the changes that occurred in the chemical properties (e. g. The decrease in pH was possible due to the decomposition of dead organic matter. 2. You can discuss specific characteristics of the organisms you found and why you think they survived or did not survive in your pond. 3. Although we did not measure dissolved oxygen, you should discuss it if you think it was important in your experiment. 4. Make suggestions for future modifications to an experiment 5. Decide whether to accept or reject each hypothesis. LITERATURE CITED You must include a t least three references in your paper. You must include at least the first page of each reference with your final paper. You must cite those references in the body of the paper wherever you have included information from them. Literature citations in the body of your paper should be in parentheses and contain only the authors last name and the date. For multiple authors include the last name of the first author, et al. , and the date. If the authors name is used in the text then just the date in parentheses is sufficient. †¦(Monod, 1949). †¦(Neidhardt et al. , 1990). Monod (1949) compared the reaction†¦.. List all literature cited in your report in alphabetical order by the last name of the first author in a separate section. Use the proper form for citations. For scientific papers: Monod, J. 1949. The growth of bacterial cultures. Annu. Rev. Microbiol. 3:371-394. For a book: Neidhardt, F. C, Ingraham, J. L. and. Schaechter, M. 1990. Physiology of the Bacterial Cell. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, MA. For a newspaper article: McKay, D. 2000. Arsenic: how much is safe? Albuquerque Journal. July 30, 2000, p. A1. For a web site: National Research Council. 1999. Arsenic in drinking water. Subcommittee on Arsenic in Drinking Water. http://www4. nationalacademies. rg/news. nsf/isbn/030906337? OpenDocument.? They can be web-based, but you should give the complete reference and use only reputable sites (sorry, no Wikipedia and . com websites) – look for . edu and . gov sites. You can use . org if it’s an unbiased site. Points: 10 pts – Overall aesthetics, grammar, scientific format5 pts – Figures or charts of results 10 pts – Abstract and Introduction10 pts – Discussion and Conclusion 5 pts – Materials and Methods5 pts – Literature Cited 5 pts – Written results-5 pts – Late per DAY (NOT per class)

Monday, October 21, 2019

What Not to Buy When Giving Gifts in China

What Not to Buy When Giving Gifts in China While giving a gift is much appreciated in Asian countries as everywhere, there are some gifts that are absolute no-nos in China, Hong Kong, and Taiwan.   In these countries, politeness, in particular, polite language, is an important part of gift-giving. It is always polite to give gifts at festivities, or when youre attending special celebrations such as a wedding or housewarming, visiting the sick, or attending a dinner with people one doesnt know well. Some gifts have subtle meanings associated with the name or the pronunciation of the name. You wouldnt want to remind a sick person about death or funerals, nor would you want to hint to people youve never met that you never  want to see them again. Here are some gifts which have names with subtle linguistic impoliteness. Avoid these Chinese gift-giving blunders. Gifts with Subtle Meanings 1. Clocks Clocks of any type should be avoided because é€ Ã© Ëœ (sà ²ng zhÃ… ng, send clock) sounds like é€ Ã§ µâ€š (sà ²ng zhÃ… ng),  the funeral ritual. Clocks also symbolize the truth that time is running out; therefore, giving a clock is a subtle reminder that relationships and life have an end.   2. Handkerchiefs To give a handkerchief to someone (é€ Ã¥ · ¾, sà ²ng jÄ «n) sounds like æâ€" ·Ã¦   ¹ (dungÄ“n), a farewell greeting. This gift is especially inappropriate for a boyfriend or girlfriend - unless you want to break up. 3. Umbrellas Offering your friend an umbrella may seem an innocent gesture; however, its subtle meaning is that you want to end your friendship with him or her. If it is raining and you are worried he or she will get wet, it is better for both of you to huddle under your umbrella until you reach your friend’s destination. Then, take the umbrella back home with you. 4. Gifts in Sets of Four Gifts in sets of four are not good because å›› (sà ¬, four) sounds like æ ­ » (sÇ , death). 5. Shoes, Particularly Straw Sandals Giving shoes é€ Ã©Å¾â€¹Ã¥ ­  (sà ²ng xià ©zi, give shoes) sounds similar to break up. Also giving two shoes sends the message that you want the person to go his or her separate way; thus, ending your friendship. 6. Green Hats A green hat is a metaphor in Chinese Ã¥ ¸ ¶Ã§ ¶  Ã¥ ¸ ½ (di lÇÅ" mo, with green hat) that means that a man’s wife is unfaithful. Why green? A turtle is green and turtles hide their heads in their shells, so calling someone a ‘turtle’ will get you in trouble because its like calling the person a coward. Gifts Which Explicitly Refer to Funerals or Break-ups 7. Towels Towels are gifts which are usually given out at funerals, so avoid giving this gift in other contexts. 8. Sharp Objects Like Knives and Scissors Giving sharp objects that are used to cut things suggests that you want to sever a friendship or relationship. 9. Cut Flowers Particularly Yellow Chrysanthemums/White Flowers Yellow chrysanthemums and white flowers of any kind are used at funerals, so giving white flowers is synonymous with death. 10. Anything in White or Black These colors are often used during funerals so presents, wrapping paper and envelopes in these colors should be avoided.

Sunday, October 20, 2019

Public Vs. Private Colleges Where Should You Go

Public Vs. Private Colleges Where Should You Go SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips While you may end up deciding to apply to a mixture of public and private colleges, you should be aware that each type has its own general set of characteristics that may be more or less aligned with your preferences.Which type of school is cheaper? Which colleges are bigger, and what opportunities exist in private vs public universities? In this article, I’ll discuss the differences between public and private colleges that you should consider in your search. What Are Public and Private Colleges? Before we get to the main differences, let’s take a second to define public and private colleges.Public colleges are higher educational institutions that areset up and funded by state governments.Well-known public colleges include the University of California, Ohio State University, the University of Alabama, and the University of Texas. Private colleges are higher educational institutions that areset up and funded by individuals outside of the government.Private colleges may be either â€Å"non-profit† or â€Å"for-profit†. Non-profit private colleges are solely focused on providing a quality education for students and helping them to achieve academic and career goals.They answer to a financially disinterested board of trustees, not an owner and shareholders. For-profit private colleges exist as businesses at the mercy of shareholders. Their goal is to turn a profit first and foremost.Though they strive to provide a quality education, if a program isn’t making them money, they will cut it even if that's not in the best interests of their students. Most reputable colleges are non-profit. This includes big names like Harvard, MIT, and Stanford. For-profit schools like University of Phoenix, Devry, and ITT Tech generally have poor reputations for helping their students and delivering a quality education. For the purposes of this guide, when we refer to private colleges we'll be talking about non-profit colleges only. What Are the Main Differences Between Public and Private Colleges? Funding and Tuition Costs Public colleges are mostly funded by state governments.The government pays for the operating costs of public colleges and universities and oversees the operation of public colleges through boards and trustees.This influx of government money means that students do not pay the real cost of attendance - they pay the cost after significant subsidies from the government.For this reason, public universities can afford to offer lower tuition prices on average.Average tuition at public colleges for the 2014-15 school year was $9,139 for in-state students and $22,958 for out of state students. Private colleges, on the other hand, are not funded by the government in any way.They rely on alumni contributors and tuition to pay for their programs.This usually forces students to carry the full cost of their education, leading to higher tuition prices.Average tuition at private colleges for the 2014-15 school year was $31,231. Class Size and Demographics Public colleges tend to have larger class sizes, especially at the introductory level.This may result in less direct access to professors and fewer class discussions.Many students come from in-state because of the lower tuition prices and higher admissions rate, so there may be less geographical diversity in the student body. Private colleges have smaller class sizes on average.This means closer relationships between students and professors and more class discussion opportunities.There will also be more geographical diversity in the student body since in-state and out of state students are not given different tuition prices. Class discussion at a small college Degree and Program Offerings Public colleges tend to have a larger student body and offer a wider variety of degrees and programs.The largest universities in the US are public, and some host undergraduate populations of over 40,000 students.At a public college, you'll be able to find pretty much any type of major program you want. However, you'll usually have to be more of a self-starter because there is less direct guidance from advisors. Private colleges don't have the same large range of major choices as public colleges, and they tend to have smaller student bodies overall.There are some private colleges that have less than 500 students total.Private colleges make up for their lack of scope with more specific curriculum requirements or a specialized focus in liberal arts or engineering.They are also more likely to have excellent advisory systems and allow students to design their own courses of study. Research Opportunities Public universities, due to their abundance of government funding, often have cutting edge research facilities and virtually endless resources.Even with all of these possibilities, it can be difficult to stand out from the crowd and get the support of professors for your research efforts. But if you’re willing to put yourself out there, public universities have some of the best opportunities in the country for intense academic research, especially in the hard sciences. Private colleges may have less resources and facilities overall, but they make up for it with easy access to professors and individual encouragement of student research efforts.Many private colleges institute specialized research programs and opportunities for students.With small class sizes, you’ll have more of a chance to get close to your professors and potentially work with them on projects. The Science Learning Center at the University of Texas, Dallas. Campus Life Public colleges usually have vibrant communities with a wide variety of extracurricular opportunities and a thriving party scene.There’s something for everyone within the social scene, and you’ll find many people who share your interests no matter how obscure they are.At public colleges, there's always something going on. Private colleges may still have very diverse communities and lots of extracurricular opportunities, but everything typically exists on a smaller scale. Those are just some basic differences between private and public colleges. Remember, they're generalizations.Some private colleges are very large and may have more of a public college atmosphere.It’s up to you to research specific schools and learn more about their characteristics. Which Type of College Is a Better Fit for You? You may be more suited for private or public colleges depending on your academic goals and social preferences.Many students apply to both types of schools, so don’t assume that you have to choose one or the other yet. Here are a couple of questions you can ask yourself to decide whether private or public colleges will be a better fit: Do You Enjoy Meeting Lots of New People? If you’re an outgoing person, you may be happier in the social environment of a large public college.At these types of colleges, you'll constanly meet new people and be presented with opportunities to try different activities.You can expect a wide variety of social experiences with lots of on-campus events and parties. At most private colleges, the student body is smaller, so the social scene may offer fewer options and feel more claustrophobic.However, this can also result in familial feeling amongst students and a more comfortable, friendly atmosphere.If you’re less outgoing and enjoy seeing people you know around all the time, the private college scene may be more your speed.Keep in mind that some private colleges are on the larger side and some public colleges are on the smaller side, so it’s important to consider each school’s characteristics on an individual basis. Are You Interested in a Specific Program? If you have a particular course of study in mind, make sure the colleges where you apply have the appropriate programs and resources. As outlined in the previous section, public colleges may have more advanced research facilities that will be useful if you plan on going into the hard sciences. If you think you're more interested in the humanities, it may not make a difference whether you go to a public or private college. Even if public colleges have more extensive libraries, private colleges usually have the wherewithal to request materials for students from other off-site libraries. Since private colleges offer more flexibility in their programs, you might think about attending a private college if your interests are diverse and might not fit neatly into one premade major track. Are You an Independent Learner? In general, if you're more of a self-starter, you will thrive at a public college. Even though public colleges have many resources, it's hard to know where to begin if you want to take full advantage of these opportunities. If you're naturally a resourceful person who's willing to go after what you want rather than waiting for it to come to you, a public college could be great for you. On the other hand, if you think you'll need more guidance to navigate your college experience, a private college could be a better fit for your personality. In a less overwhelming atmosphere with more direct supervision from professors and academic advisors, you'll have a better chance of realizing your full potential. Do you celebrate every day of your life with an extravagant fireworks display? You might be independent! Get it? Independence Day? Sorry I know I'm reaching here. Public vs. Private Colleges: Doing Your Research Now it’s time to actually research some schools based on your preferences.You canstart with College Navigator, which is a search tool that allows you to look for schools based on location, program type, and, of course, public or private status.If you’re looking for private schools, I would recommend checking the box for non-profit schools. You’ll get results that show all the public or private schools in the area of the country that you’ve specified.You can look at the statistics for these schools and add them to your favorites if any of them strike your fancy.You can also compare them side by side to see what the best options are. After searching on College Navigator, you might consider creating a profile on Cappex, where you can find more colleges and get statistics about campus life alongside student reviews.This is also a great place to create a list of colleges that interest you and compare them.If you complete your profile on Cappex, you’ll also get more recommendations for colleges that match up with your preferences.Remember, many students apply to both public and private colleges, so if your list includes a few of each type that’s totally fine! Conclusion Public and private colleges differ in the ways they are funded: public colleges are funded by state governments, while private colleges are funded by private individuals and organizations.Public and private colleges also have many characteristics that set them apart including tuition, enrollment size, social scene, and program offerings. You may decide to go to either a public or private school based on how well your personality and academic goals align with the general characteristics of each type of college.Make sure that you do your research and get the specific facts on each school before judging just based on whether it's public or private.You may end up applying to both private and public schools because there are so many great options in each category! What's Next? You'll have to make a lot of other decisions in the college admissions process besides whether you want to go to a public or private school. Check out my articles about whether you should go to college close to home and whether you should go to a large or small college. If you think you might be interested in going to a small college, take a look at my list of the best small colleges in the US.If you're interested, you should also check out these articles on the biggest and smallest colleges in the country. For a complete overview of the college search process, read my comprehensive guide on how to choose a college. Want to improve your SAT score by 240 points or your ACT score by 4 points?We've written a guide for each test about the top 5 strategies you must be using to have a shot at improving your score. Download it for free now:

Saturday, October 19, 2019

Immigration as a political and social cleavage in France Essay

Immigration as a political and social cleavage in France - Essay Example For many years, France has been home to many immigrants. The immigrants came from all over the world. It is only until recently that most newcomers in France came from other European countries. Initially, the migratory stream in France mainly composed of African Arabs and more recently black Africans from French former colonies in West Africa and the Caribbean. There are also Turks, Lebanese, and Asian immigrants (Wade 47). More notably is a group of Muslim immigrants from former French colonies. The number of Muslim immigrants in France is high to the extent that France has Western Europe’s largest Islamic population. The influx of immigrants in France has resulted in the rise of a new conflict in the nation. The conflict has led to riots and changes in laws related to the French history, culture, religion and language. Many people in French believe that the influx of immigrants will erase the identity of France as a nation especially the influence of Muslims. Religious conflicts arise due to the high number of Muslim immigrants. The religious-related conflicts have resulted in riots in many urban centers in France and tensions in Paris, Roma and other places (Angelique 1). Most of the immigrants have different ethnic backgrounds and cultures. The high numbers of these immigrants in France threaten the native ethnic composition, culture and language of the French people. The entrance of new cultures and ethnicity has threatened the local culture. Consequently, the French immigration minister launched a great debate to determine the future of France at a time when France was experiencing a high nu mber of immigrants (Nicolas 1). However, there was opposition to these national debates on immigration. Cultural cohabitation from the immigrants has increased the tension as the nation is falling into a crisis of national identity. The effects of immigrants from North Africa has

Enhancing the Ability to Think Strategically Research Paper

Enhancing the Ability to Think Strategically - Research Paper Example The article aimed at creating awareness on the development of strategic thinking and developing a model that would enhance critical thinking among adult learners. The authors acknowledged the essentiality of strategic thinking. They pointed out the existence of little knowledge regarding this issue. . Casey and Goldman (2011) suggested a model that would enhance strategic thinking. Their model incorporates iterative, interactive, as well as dynamic learning methods with individual factors. Additionally the model explains how organizational factors and job experiences can be used to enhance strategic thinking. The model that the authors developed was based on the theoretical framework, which asserts that development of strategic thinking is elicited by individual factors and experiences in addition to organization factors. According to Casey and Goldman (2011), manipulating the above aspects can lead to development of critical thinking. Casey and Goldman (2010) concluded, â€Å"Devel oping the ability to think strategically is one of the most needed yet least understood areas of management.† Moreover, they established that critical thinking is crucial for individual at the different positions in an organization. Strengths and Weaknesses The major strength of the article is the strong evidence on which the authors have based their arguments.

Enhancing the Ability to Think Strategically Research Paper

Enhancing the Ability to Think Strategically - Research Paper Example The article aimed at creating awareness on the development of strategic thinking and developing a model that would enhance critical thinking among adult learners. The authors acknowledged the essentiality of strategic thinking. They pointed out the existence of little knowledge regarding this issue. . Casey and Goldman (2011) suggested a model that would enhance strategic thinking. Their model incorporates iterative, interactive, as well as dynamic learning methods with individual factors. Additionally the model explains how organizational factors and job experiences can be used to enhance strategic thinking. The model that the authors developed was based on the theoretical framework, which asserts that development of strategic thinking is elicited by individual factors and experiences in addition to organization factors. According to Casey and Goldman (2011), manipulating the above aspects can lead to development of critical thinking. Casey and Goldman (2010) concluded, â€Å"Devel oping the ability to think strategically is one of the most needed yet least understood areas of management.† Moreover, they established that critical thinking is crucial for individual at the different positions in an organization. Strengths and Weaknesses The major strength of the article is the strong evidence on which the authors have based their arguments.

Friday, October 18, 2019

Conditioning and habit Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Conditioning and habit - Research Paper Example The responses that come up if practiced elaborately lead to habits which become subconscious responses elicited by an individual. There are many instances in our life where in we acquire so many new things. These experiences form a very important part of us and also determine to a very large extent how we analyze and assimilate the new information with the existing knowledge base that we have. Examples of such instances are a child learning a new language with a help of his grandmother, or perhaps a girl who has just started to ride on a two wheeled bicycle. Another example could be that students reacting with a particular response in presence of authority. All these instances tell us that we â€Å"learn† certain things and hence we acquire the knowledge that is coming our way to benefit us in the present or in the coming future. Michael and Modell (2003) define learning in their book Active Learning in Secondary and College Science Classrooms: A Working Model for Helping the Learner to Learn as a change in behavior that results from the learner’s interaction with the environment. There are some important things that have to be understood when we talk about learning. These form the basis for a concrete understanding about the concept at hand. All kinds of learning happen on the basis of the foundation made by already acquired skills and concepts. Whatever we come across, we take in the information as a raw data and then we incorporate the data into the concepts of the innate knowledge base that we have and learn new things. We can also illustrate another fact from the aforementioned premise that if the prior knowledge base is faulty, the acquisition and assimilation of the new concepts and schemata will be compromised. This leads to learning of information that is not accurate and taking into consideration all the aspects interplaying between the stimulus and the response (Fox, 2005). Of all the things we learn, we divide the whole information int o two definitive parts. These parts can be understood in terms of â€Å"what† we learn and â€Å"how† we learn. The process of acquiring both these concepts is also different. An example to illustrate this can be a preparation of Thai cuisine recipe. In this example, we note that there is a set particular group of ingredients to be used for the recipe to taste as it really should and it also entails a set particular way to make the dish. We need to learn the ingredients as well the way to go about mixing them together, differently in order to truly do justice to the cuisine at hand. The â€Å"what† of the learning phenomena is termed as declarative learning and the â€Å"how† are termed as procedural learning. Acquiring declarative knowledge entails a sound building of mental representations or models. These models form the crux for knowing the exact constitution of the things that make up a task and hence guides us with the way to perform the task in an effective manner. The manner with which the task is to accomplished has to be learned in standard way. This standard way is exactly the way which is reliable and valid. Therefore, to acquire such a standard process, practice is very important. This practice should be coupled with timely and appropriate feedback. By feedback, we actually mean that an appropriate response should be accompanied with every action that we perform (Jarvis, 2005). If the response is painful or aversive we tend to forget the

Final Class Project Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words

Final Class Project - Assignment Example Another element of ethics that nurses failed to observe is the principle of Non-malfeasance, which means shying away from causing any harm to the patients (Guido, 2010). Nurses are expected to illustrate a high level of competence in order to avoid any injures or suffering to the ailing patients. This principle also comprises the reporting of the nurses that fail to adhere to the ethics and laws of nursing, and, those suspected of going against the nursing rules are nullified. Nurses also failed to adhere to the rules of Autonomy. This principle deals with independence and the capability to have self- direction. This means that patients are given the right towards self-determination. In this case, patients have a right to know how they are fairing and therefore, have a right to either accept or deny treatment (Guido, 2010). The rights of the patients must be respected. Finally, according to the principle of justice, patients should receive treatment fairly and equitably. This means t hat nurses should spend ample time with patients and offer absolute attention to the satisfaction of the patients. In addition to the ethical issues, nurses had a legal obligation to this patient. The presence of law in nursing practice is to ascertain that both the nurses and patients are protected from any victimization or malpractices that may compromise their profession or health respectively. In other words, nurses show competence, safety and holistic care towards their patients. In addition, they are expected to render absolute care through principles of reasonable and prudence and show some clinical competency (Guido, 2010). Was there a deviation from the standards of care in this instance? Explain It is the role and responsibility of the nurses to ensure that patients receive maximum care in terms of their health. Based on this case, nurses seem to have deviated from the standards as prescribed by the principles of nursing and care. These nurses failed to show any concern on the patient yet he had admittance in their clinic. It is the responsibility of the nursing profession to owe similar duties to self and to patients, including the obligation to maintain integrity and safety, in maintaining competence and endure with individual and professional growth. However, the nurses expected to demonstrate care to the patients failed to show any sign of integrity and due care when they left the patient unattended to, and this may have led to his death (Ganske, 2010, Sept.). Another standard of care that nurses failed to adhere to is the standard of moral self respect. Moral esteem accords value and self-respect to every human being regardless their individual attributes or even circumstances in their lives. Nurses should extend such esteem towards themselves and also to the patients. In our case scenario, nurses deviated from demonstrating any form of integrity towards the patient and instead abandoned him to die in agony. As much as denying them self-esteem, such a behavior demoralizes their personal values and integrity in the nursing profession. What elements of negligence/ malpractice are demonstrated in this case? Explain Malpractice comprises the wrongful conducts demonstrated by a professional person. It also involves discharge of unacceptable professional roles or even the failure to adhere to the principle of proper care which

Thursday, October 17, 2019

Marketing managment Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Marketing managment - Assignment Example Each and every organization, today, give huge importance to marketing. Marketing of a restaurant is basically nothing but the marketing of the service of that restaurant. However, restaurant marketing is little more difficult as compared to any other organization or product as the restaurant industry is extremely competitive in nature. This paper is all about a new restaurant called ‘London dining Experience’ and various issues regarding marketing of this restaurant. The paper includes an in depth analysis of the marketing environment of the restaurant, the process and the reasons of segmentation of the market of ‘London dining experience’. Generally there are two distinct marketing environments that influence an organization. These are micro and macro environment. It is very important for any organization to analyze its marketing environment because marketing environment comprises of all those factors that have either direct or indirect influence on the organization. As far as ‘London Dining Experience’ is concerned, the restaurant is about to launch. As a result it needs to have clear understanding about its marketing environment. Like any other organization microenvironment of this restaurant would include its suppliers, competitors, customers and marketing intermediaries. On the other hand the macro environment of this restaurant is comprised of economics, demographics, nature, politics, culture and technology (University of London, n.d.). So, it can be stated that the marketing environment of this restaurant is the combination of all these factors. Proper analysis of all these factors would enable the organization to create and maintain healthy and effective relation with its suppliers and customers, to have clear idea what its competitors are currently doing, to clearly understand the current tastes, needs and wants of the customers and

Strategic Management Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words - 20

Strategic Management - Essay Example The company believes in developing exceptional flow experience for its people. In this study different strategic frameworks have been included to determine strategic position of the firm in market place. These models are PESTLE analysis, Porter’s five forces model, competitor array, strategic group mapping, GE-McKinsey 9 box matrix, Bowman’s strategy clock, Ansoff’s matrix and TOWS matrix. The digital marketing strategy of the company has been outlined which shall support KONE in terms of offering new products to new geographical markets. There is intense competition in the industry and it can be addressed only through implementing innovating business strategies. KONE needs to explore new market opportunities through offering new products to target segment. Digital marketing strategies shall help the firm to easily access target market and acquire desirable profit margins. The mission or value statement of the company is to create best flow experience for people. KONE is regarded as the global leader in context of elevator industry. From past many years the company is actively indulged in offering superior quality escalators or elevators to its client base. KONE aims at achieving cost competitiveness and operational excellence through innovative processes and people leadership. KONE’s strategic objectives can be divided into four dimensions such as expanding base of loyal customers, initiating employee empowerment, enabling best experience for users and seeking profitable growth. Financial objective is to grow at a rapid rate in comparison to market growth rate. KONE aims at enhancing working capital rotation and reaching 16% EBIT. External environmental analysis indicates all possible external influences which have significant impact on business operations. KONE Great Britain has been operating in elevator and escalator industry from past many years. The entire business operations of KONE can be categorized into two distinct

Wednesday, October 16, 2019

Marketing managment Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Marketing managment - Assignment Example Each and every organization, today, give huge importance to marketing. Marketing of a restaurant is basically nothing but the marketing of the service of that restaurant. However, restaurant marketing is little more difficult as compared to any other organization or product as the restaurant industry is extremely competitive in nature. This paper is all about a new restaurant called ‘London dining Experience’ and various issues regarding marketing of this restaurant. The paper includes an in depth analysis of the marketing environment of the restaurant, the process and the reasons of segmentation of the market of ‘London dining experience’. Generally there are two distinct marketing environments that influence an organization. These are micro and macro environment. It is very important for any organization to analyze its marketing environment because marketing environment comprises of all those factors that have either direct or indirect influence on the organization. As far as ‘London Dining Experience’ is concerned, the restaurant is about to launch. As a result it needs to have clear understanding about its marketing environment. Like any other organization microenvironment of this restaurant would include its suppliers, competitors, customers and marketing intermediaries. On the other hand the macro environment of this restaurant is comprised of economics, demographics, nature, politics, culture and technology (University of London, n.d.). So, it can be stated that the marketing environment of this restaurant is the combination of all these factors. Proper analysis of all these factors would enable the organization to create and maintain healthy and effective relation with its suppliers and customers, to have clear idea what its competitors are currently doing, to clearly understand the current tastes, needs and wants of the customers and

Tuesday, October 15, 2019

Summarization for saven chapters Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Summarization for saven chapters - Essay Example This reduction led to a hold being formed in the earth’s ozone layer in an area that has less than 220 Dobson units of ozone. In 1995 a second hole formed over the Arctic. Ozone is basically an oxygen atom that has been multiplied by three and is created by the suns rays high up in the atmosphere and is capable of blocking most of the UV light rays that range between 0.28 and 0.32 microns (Flannery 213-221). Chapter 24: The Road to Kyoto The Kyoto protocol faced a myriad of problems before it was eventually passed. Initially it was thought to be dead until when Russia ratified it on February 16, 2005 which was ninety days after its passing. The road to the formulation of the Kyoto protocol was seen to begin in 1985 at a scientific conference that was held in Australia. Five years after this conference methods that could be used to effectively reduce these emissions were discovered. The major hindrances that have faced the Kyoto protocol have been mainly economically and politi cally based. This has especially been so with Australia which currently has the highest per capita levels of greenhouse emissions as compared to all the other industrialized countries. The growth of emission levels in Australia over the past decade has also been considerably higher as compared to other OECD countries. Currently, the Kyoto Protocol is the only agreed upon treaty that aims to fight climate change (Flannery 222-231). Chapter 25: Cost, Cost, Cost Global warming is continuously increasing the amount of money that is spent around the world in efforts aimed at reducing its effects. Countries such as Australia and the United States wrongly perceive the Kyoto protocol as aiming to increase these costs for its member countries as opposed to reducing them. An example of the overall effectiveness of this protocol is that if Britain were to switch to using 100% renewable energy, this would have the effect of reducing the annual growth of its spending on global warming at an annu al rate of 1% until 2050. If everyone takes the time to do their job, saving the earth does not come at a huge price. The warmer the planets temperature the higher the likelihood that nations will face increased costs as they attempt to offer the necessary required relief to their citizenry. Flannery is seen to successfully prove his point that is time for all the nations to step up and ensure that they work together so as to try and reverse the catastrophic effects of climate change because enough is not being done at the current slow rate (Flannery 232-238). Chapter 26: People in Green Houses Shouldn’t Tell Lies There has been a lot of corruption in government and private organizations in regards to matters pertaining to the effects of climate change. Several groups have formed erroneous theories that water down the effects of climate change. The Global Climate Coalition that was founded by fifty companies in the coal, oil, chemical, gas and auto industries is one such grou p that claims addressing the effects of climate change could potentially add approximately fifty cents to the price of a gallon of gas in the United States. Other examples of this rampant widespread corruption include the case of Philip A. Clooney who happened to serve in

Monday, October 14, 2019

Enforcement of Anti-trust Laws and Regulations in the US Essay Example for Free

Enforcement of Anti-trust Laws and Regulations in the US Essay Monopoly has been defined as a progressive situation in the market wherein only one service or product provider exists. Sole ownership and management of this production ensures no competition in the industry in which the firm is involved. The powers are being concentrated in a single individual or groups of people managing the single existing firm. Such case leads to various legal controversies impregnating different reactions especially in the public and legal conducts. The law-conscious community is reviewing ethical issues about this controversy searching for any factors of abuse that might be occurring. Such conditions apply the law of Anti-trust. Enforcement of this kind of law accompanies complicated procedures and different processes. For companies to experience such interruptions is really a big deal of sales lost. In the United States, there are millions of establishments and not all of them are big and already established firmly. Some of this company are still gaining their phase and trying to make a break in the market competition. If their competitors are commercially big and has been established for quite long already, the monopoly of this competitor company is at high range. If this continues, then breaks the purpose of free trade principles and blocks the growth of small raising business firms. Competitions in the market are usual and important since this is where everything upholds the business. The price modifications, deals and the transaction itself are all influenced by competitions. In this case, to the implementation of this Law is very much necessary in order to prevent the disruptions of free trade policy. These issues are covered in this paper aiming to the present laws, the means of committing violations for these monopolistic powers and the legal considerations involved in this issue. Reinforcement of such law is also included in the discussion and analysis of this paper. The paper aims to answer the following query by critical analysis and a. What are Anti-trust Laws and how does it affect the business conditions? b. How do the authorities implement this rules and regulations? Cite the problems of implementations encountered upon its implementation phase. The implementation of such law in a wide scale basis proves to be difficult and can sometimes be problematic; since, with the anti-trust law, you are not anymore dealing with a single or small business firms but rather huge companies and mostly monopoly associations. The scope of this study revolves only in the objective to answer the proposed questions. Anti-Trust Law Coverage The law of Anti-trust basically defeats the effects of monopoly or those that threaten free trade conditions. This competition law has different factors to which it can extend it effects. The Anti-trust law, first and foremost, negates any external or internal forces that halt free trading as well as market competition in every business firm. Second, any domination of such firm in the market is a form of abuse towards its competitors. Lastly, any business activities that threaten the status and rights of competing business firms under free trade can be halted or suspended. In the United States, large business associations have aimed to control the market. In such case, the dominating business firm can set the price by its own will, manipulate customer and in some cases even refuse customers. These actions are greatly inhibited by the Anti-trust law (Hylton, 2003 p. 43-44). Section 1. Every contract, combination in the form of trust or otherwise, or conspiracy, in restraint of trade or commerce among the several States, or with foreign nations, is declared to be illegal. Every person who shall make any contract or engage in any combination or conspiracy hereby declared to be illegal shall be deemed guilty of a felony, and, on conviction thereof, shall be punished by fine This exact statement has been settled in the federal constitution, which evidently includes both transactions and negotiations from outside and inside the country that have an intention of disrupting free trade concept. The violation of Antitrust law is deemed as guilty of felony and punishable by fines. The Monopoly Law: Anti-trust Law  Dated back during 1990s, the economists have become entirely focused in the ongoing competitiveness especially in the commercial field. The frequent changes of the integral character of these business firms and the necessity for employment advancements in the middle of an evident competition and technologically oriented commerce have induced this impulsion. Community institutions have concentrated on promotion of economic efficiency by developing the policies that governs national economy and liberalization and privatization within national economy (Olson 1999, p. 1-2). As provided the Anti-trust law, which is statutory, regulatory, and an essential part of the federal legal body that prevents and corrects unreasonable trade restraints, any commercial firms that solely centralize and null the competition, as in the case of monopoly, are actually committing violence against the said law (Emerson 2004, p. 485). The Anti-trust law comprises various regulatory laws that maintain capitalism, fair trade and market competition in the economy. Sherman act is the best example of an economic policy that negates unfair competition as promoted by the system of monopoly (Letwin 1981, p. ). As stated by the Section II. Monopolizing trade a felony; Penalty of Sherman Act of 1890: Every person who shall monopolize, or attempt to monopolize, or combine or conspire with any other person or persons, to monopolize any part of the trade or commerce among the several States, or with foreign nations, shall be deemed guilty of a felony, and, on conviction thereof, shall be punished by fine not exceeding $10,000,000 if a corporation, or, if any other person, $350,000, or by imprisonment not exceeding three years, or by both said punishments, in the discretion of the court. Application of this law provides access to far-reaching principle of the policy that the American economy shall continue competitive economy and null any attempts of eliminating these competitions (Letwin 1981, p. 3). Committing Violations by Monopoly Powers Certain controversies ignite the legal bodies regarding the major organization’s increasing monopolization status. According to Pearlstein (2004), any claims of occurring monopolization power require proof of price manipulation or any attempts to exclude competition in the market provided these are willful initiations and with maintenance of that power (p. 29). Monopoly claims are subjected not only during its exercise but mainly in existence, meaning even the stage dormancy commits violation however; the rule of exemption still applies to some scenarios. Monopolization power that exists for a short period of time however, may not support the claims of monopoly (p. 231). Felony is the violation committed of the act of monopoly. However, there are certain limits and considerations analyzed in the ethical considerations in this law in order to balance the situation. This forms controversy among commercial and legal firms (McConnell Brue 2004, p. 00). Ethical Considerations: Behavioralists and Structuralists The ethical considerations of these cases primarily divide the views in terms of the firm’s structure and the performance of these business organizations. The two scenarios illustrated in the book of McConnell Brue (2004), Economics: Principles, Problems, and Policies, are analyzed in this section. In 1911, the issue of U. S Steel case has established a rule of reason in the court. The conditions are the increased size and evident monopolistic powers of the said firm. However, the firm has justified their claims in the court stating the presence of these powers is basically unintended. They have not caused any illegal actions among their minor competitors hence the court termed their case as â€Å"good trust† considering this not guilty. On the other hand, the Aloe Case that has occurred in 1945 has possessed clear indication of monopoly since it has supplied 90% aluminum in the market. Such case has led into incapacitation the minor aluminum producers. The court has announced guilty and violation of Sherman act sec II is pronounced (p. 600). Structuralists view that the firm with most market shares are the legitimate target of this monopoly law since market competition are being affected. In this case, it is natural for the occurrence of such monopolistic behavior. Suggestion of this group involves the splitting of this huge firm into smaller units providing improvement and quality of performance as well. This applies in the case of Aloe since their firm shares the biggest part in the market. In another point of view, Behavioralists view the large firms make their way to possess unintended monopolistic status. They view that this might be because of the quality of service, best products and reasonable prices rendered to the public. Such case, if proven to have absent competitive practices provides pardon from monopoly regulation of Sherman act (p. 601). Enforcement Antitrust laws have been objected by other business firms due to various reasons that impede wealth accumulation. If the antirust laws are designed to provide the socially optimal level of deterrence, then they have to discourage only those acts that reduce society’s wealth. Antitrust laws overdeter if they discourage conduct that on balance increases society’s wealth (Hylton, 2003 p. 43). In terms of the telecoms company, some have viewed the conditions of Antitrust questionable as well. The design of this law is originally applicable to traditional manufacturing and distribution industries, since these markets are fast-moving corporations or the production of their products is very fast hence, production increases and the capacity of product provision from the sole supplier also occurs. Operators often claim that their market is an â€Å"emerging market†; however, this condition is not anymore applicable if vast expanse of production to the point of hindering competition is already happening. This condition defeats the purpose of free trade as well as competitions. The statement of the Sherman Antitrust Act is not accurate, and this has resulted to legal confusions and inconsistencies. It has become unsuccessful in defining the meaning of such essential definitions as trust, conspiracy, restraint of trade or commerce, monopolize, or combine. Because of this, the end outcome of such term discrepancy is the struggling of United States courts for the provision of clear and accurate legal definition for this law. The Federal Trade commission is the ones responsible for the enforcement, monitoring and revocation of such law, and this organization has been doing this for the past 8 decades now. The capabilities of FTC are further enhanced and now able to suspend those business corporations or marketing industries that promotes anti-competitive actions. The antitrust division, however, are the ones in charge of investigatory assessment and prosecutions of these associations found as such. If in case the antitrust division found grounds of anti-competition schemes, it seriously prosecutes the violations of these firms against the law. The FTC, on the other hand, also serves as the protocol manager that provides guidance for these corporations in terms of business restructuring or law-abiding marketing strategies in order to prevent the violation of such law. These firms need to adhere and abide in the U. S. aw of Competition in order to avoid the tendency of closure or suspension. The Sherman Act has become the main branch of the antitrust law. This act is the one responsible for the maintenance of free and competitive business firms. Violations of anti-competitions and negation of free policies are filed under this act ever since the act has been promulgated. However, penalty system of this law has been modified; Individual offenders may be fined up to $350,000 and sentenced to three years in prison for each offense. Corporations can be fined up to $10 million, in some cases even more (Sherman Antitrust Act†¦, 2007). According to the article brought by The Economist (200), entitled Trust and antitrust. (Effects of enforcing antitrust legislation), Untied States law body enforces the law strictly and seriously. In the past decades, the enforcement of this law has greatly improved; however, the focus has become limited. Instead of attacking business firms simply because they are big, trust busting has been restricted to cases where there is clear evidence of market power, as defined by economists rather than lawyers, being used to harm consumers. However, during the time of Clinton administration, the scope and scale of antitrust implementation have expanded greatly, way beyond such well-founded cases as Microsoft. However, there are associated problems as well for the implementation of this law since the case per company violations are being scrutinized firmly. Moreover, confusion due to definitions and scope conditions are usually occurring. Mostly the problems that revolve under this law conditions are procedural and systematic processes. In the end, delays are resulted because of procedural difficulties. Adding more into that are the overlapping authorities that need to be addressed upon filing, analysis and implementation of such law. In the current trend of antitrust implementation, bodies such as politicians, lawyers and economists are looking at this law as a big opportunity to attain fortune. It is because of the penalties and under-the-table transactions that occur between these people and the alleged company. In some cases, trust-busting associations such as Justice Department and the Federal Trade Commission even causes double or multiple jeopardy among these companies. There are those people who even look at this scenario as business and not anymore justice. The ethical considerations of such law become fragile since, law bodies tend to view this as income source rather than free trade and competition issues. One of the examples of this condition has occurred in the ever popular, Microsoft. This company has encountered double up to multiple jeopardy because of Anti-trust violation. It may make sense, as suggested recently by Richard Posner, the court-appointed mediator in the Microsoft case, for Congress to ban state antitrust suits in such situations. In addition, there is an argument, given that many monopolies and mergers are now global in reach, for some kind of world co-ordinating body, as suggested by Joel Klein, the Justice Departments outgoing antitrust boss. Surprisingly, antitrust has now become an alluring profession for money-grabbing politicians, bureaucrats, economists and lawyers, all of whom will be likely to prefer opposing positions. Any lawyer or economist who knows about antitrust will earn a fortune from increased activity.

Sunday, October 13, 2019

Mending Wall Essay -- Literary Analysis, Robert Frost

Throughout the history of man, separation has been a part to their lives in one fashion or another. Man has faced separation from their god, from their community, from their loved ones and from their dreams and desires. Recognizing this continuing condition, writers throughout time have written about such separation that people have experienced. In fact, separation seems to be the central theme in many literary pieces of work. Robert Frost gave us the poem, â€Å"Mending Wall† which explores separation of one neighbor from another. Additionally, Frost wrote, â€Å"Home Burial† which demonstrates the separation experienced by a couple after the loss of their child. John Cheever’s short story â€Å"The Swimmer† shares the journey of Neddy whose alcoholism has separated himself from time, his family, friends, money and health. Walter Lee Younger in Lorraine Hansberry’s, â€Å"A Raisin in the Sun† faces constant separation from his dreams and a separation of ideals from his family. W.E.B. Dubois shares with the reader a separation of an entire people from their equality thought to have been given to them forty years prior. Though separation may not be the primary message of the writers above, it certainly reveals itself in a variety of ways. The myriad of ways separation is used in the poems and stories previously mentioned are as vast as the causes of the gaps themselves. The speaker in Frost’s, â€Å"Mending Wall† expresses through thoughts primarily the necessity for a wall between himself and his neighbor. Every year the wall is damaged by weather and hunters as the speaker indicates, â€Å"Something there is that doesn’t love a wall (Frost, 51).† Additionally, the speaker asks his neighbor of what purpose is there is such ... ... â€Å"A Raisin in the Sun† felt held down by the enormity of generations of struggle and poverty. Walter Lee’s burning desire to break free of poverty and gain financial success clouded his responsibility as head of the household and made him a slave to money he did not have. He was enslaved by the love of money. The poverty and the lack of support from his family fueled his ever edgy fire of discontentment. It is only through his placement of his family in a worse predicament did he break free of the bonds of money. This new found freedom eliminated the separation between he and his family, but like Du Bois, things went unchanged in his world. Walter Lee would never achieve his dream in the play. Racism, poverty and corruption kept Walter Lee from achieving his dream and he could not overcome them as he burdened with the fate that he had not part in receiving.

Saturday, October 12, 2019

Balanced Literacy vs Whole Language Approach to Teaching Reading Essay

Whole language is considered a "top down" approach where the reader constructs a personal meaning for a text based on using their prior knowledge to interpret the meaning of what they are reading. Teachers are expected to provide a literacy rich environment for their students and to combine speaking, listening, reading, and writing. Whole language teachers emphasize the meaning of texts over the sounds of letters, and phonics instruction becomes just one component of the whole language classroom. Problems associated with whole language include a lack of structure that has been traditionally supplied by the scope and sequence, lessons and activities, and extensive graded literature found in basal readers. Whole language puts a heavy burden on teachers to develop their own curriculum. Balanced Literacy is an approach for teaching literacy that is widely used in classrooms across the country. It involves several methods of teaching and learning reading and writing, whole class instruction directed by the teacher with independent work in reading, writing, and oral language. By integrating a variety of approaches, a balance is achieved in which students learning to understand text (from a whole language approach) as well as how to read text (from a phonics approach). Effective phonics instruction focuses children's attention on noticing the letter/sound patterns in initial consonants and consonant clusters and in rimes. BALANCED LITERACY provides and cultivates the skills o...

Friday, October 11, 2019

Effectiveness of Celebrity Endorsements for Non-Profit Organization

ASSIGNMENT COVER SHEET Every piece of written work you submit for assessment must have this cover sheet attached. Please type in your details then copy and paste to the front of your assignment and save the file ready to upload. COURSE DETAILS Course Code: RBUS2900 Course Co-ordinator: Dr. Ravi Pappu Course Name: Business Research Methods Assignment No: 2B Assignment Due Date: 28/05/2012 STUDENT CONTACT DETAILS Student Number: James Jun Qiang Low Ng Han Siong Derrick Bram Wijaya Peng Yang Cheng Student Name: 42683346 42485184 42734480 42602600 Email Address: Low. [email  protected] com Derrick. [email  protected] com [email  protected] com [email  protected] com Work submitted may be subjected to a plagiarism detection process. If this process is used, then copies of this work would be retained and used as source material for conducting future plagiarism checks. Due Date: 28/05/2012 Submitted date: 27/05/2012 RBUS2900 Business Research Methods Assignment 2B Tutorial report Co ver sheet Student ID 42683346 42485184 42734480 42602600 Low Ng Wijaya Cheng James Jun Qiang Han Siong Bram Peng Yang WEDNESDAY, 12pm – 1pm T27 Assignment 2B TOM MAGORSurname Given name Tutorial date & time Tutorial group (e. g. T24: G1) Assignment Number Tutor’s name Time Tutor T6 Wed 12-1 Teegan T10 Wed 10-11 Teegan T14 Wed 1-2 Kim Tutorial T15 T16 Wed Wed 8-9 9-10 Tom Teegan Tutorial T24 T25 Thu Thu 11-12 3-4 Max Max T18 Wed 4-5 Kim T19 Wed 5-6 Kim T20 Tue 2-3 Kim Time Tutor T21 Tue 8-9 Rahil T22 Tue 9-10 Rahil T23 Tue 2-3 Rahil T26 Tue 12-1 Tom T27 Wed 12-1 Tom T28 Mon 10-11 Max RBUS2900 Business Research Method Assignment 2 Part B RBUS2900: BUSINESS RESEARCH METHODS Effectiveness of Celebrity EndorsementsFor Non-Profit Organization James Jun Qiang Low Ng Han Siong Derrick Bram Wijaya Peng Yang Cheng 5/28/2012 This is a research plan on how different celebrity related factors influence donor/volunteer perceptions of the non-profit organization endorsed. RBUS2900 Bu siness Research Method Assignment 2 Part B EXECUTIVE SUMMARY This proposal is written to address the concerns of PeTA in investigating the effect that celebrity endorsers have on the organisation that they endorse. In particular, three aspects of the celebrity will be analysed.Firstly, due to the high number of advertisement used by PeTA that feature near nude celebrities, this paper will analyse how does the physical attractiveness of a celebrity influence a consumer’s perception of the organisation. Secondly, as many of these celebrities are seen to endorse multiple brands, it would be beneficial for PeTA to study how does over endorsement influence the perception consumers have of PeTA. Lastly, it is proposed that should consumers perceive that celebrities are being paid for their work endorsing PeTA, it would lead to a negative effect on the perception of the organisation.It is also proposed that age, gender and education level will each have a moderating effect on the re lationship that exist between each variable and the perception of PeTA. Based on the research objective, it is proposed that the most suitable research method is a pretest-posttest control group experiment whereby negative information about a celebrity’s over endorsement and income from the endorsement will be controlled and provided and the effects of this information will be analysed. This method was chosen as it allows for an isolation of the subjects into specifically just experiencing the experimental conditions.A control group allows for a more accurate detection of changes. Respondents will be selected via simple random sampling from a telephone book used as a sampling frame. The results of the experiment will then be tested using SPSS. Specifically, descriptive statistics, factor analysis, paired samples t-test and multiple regression analysis will be utilised to produce the results. Due to the need to establish cause-and-effect in the experiment, it is proposed that multiple regression analysis would be most suitable.This technique, coupled with theory, will be able to provide PeTA with a good picture of whether perception of a celebrity endorser will have an impact on the perception of the organisation. RBUS2900 Business Research Method Assignment 2 Part B Table of Contents 1. INTRODUCTION †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. 1 1. 1 1. 2 2. 1 2. 2 2. 3 2. 4 2. 5 3. 1 3. 2 3. 3 3. 4 Problem statement and Research Objectives †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ Importance †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. 2 Perception of the organisation (Dependent variable)†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. 3 Attractiveness (Independent variable 1)†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ 3 Over-endorsement by celebrity (Independent variable 2) †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. 4 Perceived celebr ity income from endorsement (Independent variable 3) †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ Moderating variables †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. 6 Research design†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. 7 Research method †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. 7 Sampling design †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ Data collection †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ 9 Ethics †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ 9 Data collection method †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. 10 Figure 1 – Relationship Model Diagram †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ 2. HYPOTHESES DEVELOPMENT †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢ € ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. 3 3. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ 7 3. 4. 1 3. 4. 2 Figure 2 – Pretest-Posttest Group Experiment Method †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. 10 Figure 3 – Survey: Total error diagram †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. 2 Table 1 – Survey errors encountered †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢ € ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ 13 3. 5 Measurement (Please refer to appendix 2 for survey questions) †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. 13 Perception of organisation (Dependent variable)†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. 13 Attractiveness (Independent variable) †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. 14 Over-endorsement of celebrity (Independent variable) †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ 4 Perception of income from endorsement (Independent variable) †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. 14 3. 5. 1 3. 5. 2 3. 5. 3 3. 5. 4 4. 1 4. DATA ANALYSIS†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. 15 Procedure†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. 15 Descriptive statistics†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚ ¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. 5 Factor analysis†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. 15 Paired sample T-test †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. 16 Multiple regression analysis †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. 16 Factor analysis†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. 7 Paired samples t-test †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. 17 4. 1. 1 4. 1. 2 4. 1. 3 4. 1. 4 4. 2 4. 2. 1 4. 2. 2 Expected results †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. 17 RBUS2900 Business Research Method Assignment 2 Part B Figure 4 – Sample paired t-test results †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ 18 4. 3. 3 4. 3. Multiple regression analysis †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. 18 Discussion of outcomes †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. 18 References †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. 20 APPENDIX †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. 3 Appendix 1 †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã ¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. 23 Table 1a Table 1b Table 1c Table 1d Appendix 2 Appendix 3 Conceptual definitions †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. 23 Hypotheses †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. 4 List of measures †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. 25 Data analysis techniques †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ 26 Measurement instrument (Survey) †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ 27 Schedule †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. 1 RBUS2900 Business Research M ethod Assignment 2 Part B 1. INTRODUCTION 1. 1 Problem statement and Research Objectives People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PeTA) is the largest animals rights organisation in the world with more than three million members and supporters. It uses a variety of avenues to bring forward its campaign and one of them is through the use of celebrity endorsements. (PeTA, 2012) As a result, there is a need to analyse the effectiveness of celebrity endorsement in furthering the agenda of PeTA.In particular, due to the vast differences in types of celebrities as well as industries that the celebrities are based in, consumers may have a different perception of these celebrities as well as the organisation that is being endorsed. As such, a negative perception of a celebrity and his/her industry may result in transference of negative perception to the organisation being endorsed. (White, Goddard & Wilbur, 2009) This is especially applicable to PeTA who endorses celebrities that come f rom many different industries and each celebrity varies in terms of social standing as well as reputation.As such, an investigation into the effects of celebrity perception resulting in negative information transference to the endorsed organisation will be most suitable to be undertaken for research by PeTA. Based on the problem stated above, there is a need to investigate the various aspects of a celebrity and its effect on PeTA as the endorsed organisation. Three independent factors have been established that form the perception of a celebrity and the dependent variable of the endorsed organisation. (Please refer to figure 1) RBUS2900 Business Research Method Assignment 2 Part B 1 Figure 1 – Relationship Model Diagram 1. Importance The importance of this research study is to ensure a suitable fit between the celebrity and PeTA. This fit is determined by the perception of the celebrity and its effect on the perception of the organisation. By ensuring a good fit, PeTA will be able to focus more specifically on a target market that might have been otherwise unreachable due to the unsuitable fit between celebrity and PeTA. This is with the pretext that there is a positive correlation between perception of celebrity endorser and perception of organisation. RBUS2900 Business Research Method Assignment 2 Part B 2 . HYPOTHESES DEVELOPMENT 2. 1 Perception of the organisation (Dependent variable) Perception of the organisation is the dependent variable in the case of this study as it seeks to elaborate whether the below-mentioned independent variables will have an impact on the consumer’s perception of the organisation after they have been subjected to the exposure of the independent variables. A similar test conducted by Trimble and Rifon (2006), stated that the attitudes of the audiences toward a non-profit organisation increased when it was endorsed by a celebrity with a positive image.The variables mentioned below are similar in context with what Tri mble and Rifon have done but analyses different variables and will provide a different conclusion. 2. 2 Attractiveness (Independent variable 1) Attractiveness of a celebrity has always been a factor of consideration when selecting an endorser for a product. This is particularly the case when evaluating the celebrity endorsers that have been chosen by PeTA whereby physically attractive celebrities are chosen as endorsers. It is seen that physical attractiveness is able to facilitate attitude change (Baker & Churchill 1977; Caballero & Pride 1984; Chaiken 1986; Horai et al. 974; Joseph 1982; Kulka & Kessler 1978; Mills & Aronson 1965; Mills & Harvey 1972) However, not all research has demonstrated that it increases attitude change in that it causes the consumer to develop a positive perception of the product/organisation being endorsed. The Source Attractiveness Model, derived by McGuire (1985) in a study, suggests that similarity, familiarity and likeability of a celebrity endorser w ill determine their effectiveness in endorsing a product. This suggest contrary to the list of articles stated that the RBUS2900 Business Research Method Assignment 2 Part B 3 ttractiveness in the sense of likeability of a celebrity endorser can indeed increase the positive perception of the product/organisation that is endorsed. Hence, by studying the physical attractiveness of a celebrity endorser, especially in the light of how PeTA strongly uses physical attractiveness as an important consideration in selecting endorsers, it would be most suitable to study how the supposed perception of physical attractiveness of a celebrity will indeed affect the perception of PeTA.The hypothesis derived from this variable is as such: H1: The perceived physical attractiveness of an endorser will result in an increased positive perception of the endorsed organisation 2. 3 Over-endorsement by celebrity (Independent variable 2) Mowen and Brown (1981) in their analysis of the effectiveness of celeb rity endorsers have suggested that a natural occurrence from the vast number of products endorsed by celebrities is that some celebrities tend to endorse a number of products.While ideally, it is stated that endorsers should not be tarnished by their associations with other products (Foote, Cone & Belding 1978), having a â€Å"virgin† endorser would generally be highly expensive and such would not be practical. Hence, the issue of multiple endorsements by a celebrity is especially pertinent in this case because PeTA is seen to have endorsed many celebrities that might endorsed products that are contradictory to the nature of PeTA, which is to protect animals. This may cause a disparity in the perception consumers will now have over the endorsement of such celebrity of PeTA.Kaikati (1987) and Mowen and Brown (1981) have further substantiated that a celebrity endorser may be perceived to be less credible should the celebrity choose to endorse more brands and products. RBUS2900 Business Research Method Assignment 2 Part B 4 Hence, it is brought forth in the next hypothesis: H2: In situations whereby celebrities are seen to endorse multiple products that might be contradictory to the nature of the organisation, there will be a decrease in positive perception of the endorsed organisation. 2. 4 Perceived celebrity income from endorsement (Independent variable 3)When endorsing a product, celebrities are often paid for their services. This is very much accepted as a service rendered, is expected to be paid for. However, the issue in studying this is especially pertinent as by being paid, it is questionable whether that celebrity is truly endorsing the product out of genuine belief in the product or solely for the monetary benefit involved. In the case of PeTA and its endorsed celebrities, it would be especially appropriate as protection of animals is more often a lifestyle and not just the usage of a particular product.The celebrity endorsing the product is exp ected to believe in the protection of animals and not just for the monetary benefit involved. However, does this perception of being paid for the endorsement result in a related decrease of positive perception for the organisation endorsed? Correspondence Bias (Gilbert & Jones, 1986) refers to the observer’s exaggerated use of dispositional attributions, assumptions that the actor does what he does due to his internal dispositions.Kardes (1993) has related this to endorsement advertisements whereby consumers disregard the situational constraints such as the money being paid to the celebrity, due to correspondence bias and thus contributes to the effectiveness of endorsement advertisements. Cronley et al. (1999) found support for the above-mentioned theory in that participants of an experiment actually assumed that the endorser actually liked the product regardless of whether the endorser was paid or not.This was correlated to the participants’ attitudes toward the adve rtisement, the product and the endorser. RBUS2900 Business Research Method Assignment 2 Part B 5 However, a study conduct by Sorum, Grape and Silvera (2003), had opposite results to Cronley’s 1999 experiment. There was no correspondence bias found in the study. As such, it would be most appropriate the study the supposed effects of correspondence bias on the consumers who see the PeTA advertisements and whether there is a disregard of situational constraints much like in the experiment conducted by Cronley et al. 1999) The hypothesis put forth is thus: H3: The more a celebrity is perceived to be paid for the endorsement, the more negative the perception of the organisation. 2. 5 Moderating variables This study will utilise three moderating variables in the study of the effects of perception of the celebrity endorser in relation to the perception of the endorsed organisation. It is proposed that as age decreases, the effects of each independent variable on the dependent variab le will decrease as well due to the decreased perception of the consumer of the variability of the independent variables.The Selectivity Hypothesis (Putrevu, 2001) has suggested that gender differences in information processing emerge because men are more likely to be driven by overall message themes and women are more likely to engage in detailed elaboration of messages. Hence as a moderating variable, it can be seen that gender is expected to have a moderating effect on the independent variables. Lastly, a study by Daneshvary and Schwer (2000) has concluded that education level is seen to have an impact on perception of endorsement.Lower levels of education are more impressionable to association endorsements than individuals with a college education. Education provides individuals with analytical skills to decipher information and make an RBUS2900 Business Research Method Assignment 2 Part B 6 informed purchase rather than just relying on one source of information. As such, it can be said that education will have a moderating effect on the independent variables. 3. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 3. 1 Research design The research design chosen for this study will be causal in nature as it seeks to understand the cause-and-effect relationships that exist.In particular, it will seek to explain the variance in the perception of the organisation, by analysing the independent variables involved and looking to infer theories and data analysis results to draw a conclusive cause of the variance in the perception of the organisation. As elaborated by Zikmund et al, â€Å"before causal studies are undertaken, researchers typically have a good understanding of the phenomena being studied. † (2010) Hence a causal design is selected due to the vast knowledge already in existence in terms of the literature on perception of an organisation as well as the perception of a celebrity endorser.However, little has been done to show any appropriate causation between the two variables especially one that is particular to the nature of a non-profit organisation. 3. 2 Research method Due to the nature of the research design, an experimental design of a pretest-posttest control group design will be used to explain the cause-and-effect relationship that is proposed between the independent and dependent variable. The subjects in the experimental group are tested before and after being exposed to the treatment. The control group will also be tested at both times but would not be subjected to the treatment.In using this design, Dimitrov and Rumrill Jr. have suggested three considerations in terms of validity of the design. The first two are pertinent to internal validation, which is the degree to RBUS2900 Business Research Method Assignment 2 Part B 7 which the experimental treatment makes a difference in the specific experimental settings and the third one is in consideration of external validity which is the degree to which the treatment effect can be generalised acr oss populations, settings, treatment variables and measurement instruments. (2003, p. 59) Maturation, an internal validity issue, occurs when biological and psychological characteristics of research participants change during the experiment, thus affecting their posttest scores. History, also an internal validity issue, occurs when participants experience an event that will affect their post-test scores. Whereas the interaction of pretesting and treatment, an external validity issue, happens when the pretest sensitises participants so that they respond differently to the treatment as they might have without the pretest. (Dimitrov & Rumrill Jr. , p. 60) Maturation and History will not be an issue for the conduct of our experiment as the time lapse between the pretest and posttest phase is negligible and thus should not allow for any changes in Maturation and History. To prevent the participants from becoming sensitised and perform the experiment differently from what they would have without the pretest, we are utilising a fictional situation in order to control the knowledge of the participants on the subject. Please refer to the Data Collection portion to gain a better understanding. 3. 3 Sampling designBased on the purpose of this research, the decisions resulting from this experiment will have many strategic managerial implications. As such, the target population would be defined as the entire population in the world of people who are of suitable age to donate to a non-profit organisation. As seen from the PeTA website (n. d. ), one of the means of donating would be through credit card deductions. As such, a suitable age group would be the minimum age RBUS2900 Business Research Method Assignment 2 Part B 8 group for owning a credit card, which is 18 years old.Hence the population would range from individuals of 18 years and above. Hence, the population in Australia will be subjected to a simple random sampling method to form the sample population. Chosen par ticipants are expected to be of a variety with differing age groups, gender and income level. As such, a sampling frame of the national telephone numbers in Australia will be used. Factors to consider when determining sample size are the confidence interval needed to predict the result and the amount of standard error permissible to estimate the population parameter.Hence, based on the formula provided by Zikmund et al. (2010, p. 435), with a confidence interval of 95 percent, range of error of 0. 5 and an estimated population standard deviation of 4. 0, we will have a minimum sample size of 246. 3. 4 Data collection 3. 4. 1 Ethics Before proceeding on with data collection, the group will have to keep in mind the ethical issues involved. As researchers, the group will have to be responsible to the people who are involved in this research. Our group will adhere to these select principles such as: a.Objectivity Strive to avoid bias in experimental design, data analysis, data interpret ation, peer review, personnel decisions, grant writing, expert testimony, and other aspects of research where objectivity is expected or required. Avoid or minimize bias or self-deception. Disclose personal or financial interests that may affect research. b. Honesty RBUS2900 Business Research Method Assignment 2 Part B 9 Strive for honesty in all scientific communications. Honestly report data, results, methods and procedures, and publication status. Do not fabricate, falsify, or misrepresent data.Do not deceive colleagues, granting agencies, or the public. c. Legality Know and obey relevant laws and institutional and governmental policies. d. Privacy Protect confidential communications, such as papers or grants submitted for publication, personnel records, trade or military secrets, and patient records. e. Nonmaleficence (principle of doing no harm) When conducting research on human subjects, minimize harms and risks and maximize benefits; respect human dignity, privacy, and autono my; take special precautions with vulnerable populations; and strive to distribute the benefits and burdens of research fairly.These are some of the principles that researchers should adhere to (Peter Steane, 2004; Shamoo A & Resnik D, 2009) 3. 4. 2 Data collection method Jack R. Fraenkel, Figure 2 – Pretest-Posttest Group Experiment Method 1993 In this design, the dependant variable will be measured before and after the treatment level is presented. This allows the researcher to compute the means for pretest and posttest and measure the difference (Millsap, 2009). A scenario-based study was chosen because this RBUS2900 Business Research Method Assignment 2 Part B 10 ethod allows for easier operationalising of the manipulations, providing more control over the variables (Dong, Evans & Zou 2008). We have identified that we will be using communication as the mean of obtaining primary data, specifically conducting a survey. We have chosen to conduct a survey due to the following criteria (Zikmund et al. , 2010): ? ? ? Questions asked for the tested variables are internal to the respondents. Survey provides the best versatility as the research contains different type of data.As this is a low budget research project, survey is the most efficient and economical data collection method. a. Pretest Written scenarios will be created for this experiment. In the first phase of the pretest, background information of a non-profit organization (PeTA) is provided. Twenty-six questions are then tested to analyse the perceived image of the organization. In the second phase of the pre-test, a celebrity endorser (Brad Pitt) will be introduced. Positive background information about the celebrity is then given. Twelve questions are then used to test the three independent variables. . Posttest In the third phase of the experiment, negative information about the celebrity endorser is given. Information supplied is related to the three independent variables of the following set tings: ? ? Attractiveness: Images of a sex scandal and a rugged image of the celebrity Multiple Endorsements: Information of celebrity endorsing for multiple brands however, contradicting to the values of the non-profit organization ? Perceive Income: Information of celebrity getting paid to endorse for a non-profit organization RBUS2900 Business Research Method Assignment 2 Part B 11Subsequently, the respondents are to fill in the twenty-six questions and twelve questions again in order to analyse the effects of the negative information. c. Procedure The survey will be conducted in an enclosed room and the participants will be seated at individual tables during the conduct of the survey. They will then be randomly selected to be either in the experiment or control group. They will also be informed that their careful consideration into each question would help the researchers evaluate celebrity endorsements on non-profit organizations.This is reminded again by the title provided at the cover page. It will also be emphasised that their participation in voluntary and confidentiality is kept at the strictest levels. This is reminded again as a disclaimer on the last page of the survey. d. Errors Figure 3 – Survey: Total error diagram The figure shows the various types of errors that might be present in survey. Particularly in our survey, we have identified the following possible errors that we might face and the control measures: RBUS2900 Business Research Method Assignment 2 Part B 12Type of Error Random Sampling Error Response error – Interviewer bias Response error – Extremity bias Administrative error – Interviewer error Control measures Increase the sample size from People of very extreme initial 100 to 200. backgrounds existing in randomize (Bartlett, Kotrlik, & Higgins, group 2001) Interviewer introduced as As we are asking about Brad Pitt neutral parties helping to attractiveness, the respondent may facilitate the session and h as answer differently due to the nothing to do with the research presence of the interviewer group (Herbert F.Weisberg, 2005) Before the start of the questionnaire, address to the As most of the questions provided respondents the importance of are a seven point semantic correct data needed to be differentiated scale, respondents collected from them, thus may just choose 1 or 7 for emphasizing our appreciation convinence to them to provide their best effort. (Ian Gregory, 2003) As there are two different sets of Make sure the experiment survey, the interviewer might issue ground is properly organize out the wrong amount of sets, and double checked before the ideally it is suppose to be equal seating of the respondents. umber of sets given out. (Floyd J. Fowler et al. , 1990) Table 1 – Survey errors encountered Cause 3. 5 Measurement (Please refer to appendix 2 for survey questions) 3. 5. 1 Perception of organisation (Dependent variable) Perception of organisation is measured w ith 26 items adapted from Sarstedt and Schloderer (2010) -? = 0. 95. The closer Cronbach’s alpha (? ) is to 1. 0, the more reliable the items. Hence these 26 items are considered reliable. It will be measured on a seven-point Likert scale.Likert scale is â€Å"a measure of attitudes designed to allow respondents to rate how strongly they agree or disagree with carefully constructed statements, ranging from very positive to very negative attitudes toward some object† (Zikmund et al. , 2010). To make the scale more reliable, the scale from one to seven is used, therefore reducing the differences between levels, resulting in a more reliable measurement. In addition, all the indicators were randomized in order to avoid order effects (Sarstedt & Schloderer, 2010) RBUS2900 Business Research Method Assignment 2 Part B 13 . 5. 2 Attractiveness (Independent variable) Attractiveness was measured with a bipolar semantic differential scale. This was useful as it measured the attit udes of respondents on a scale. According to Zikmund et al. , the scale is found to be useful and versatile in many business applications (2010, p. 320). There were four items that were used to measure attractiveness. This was adapted from a study conducted by DeShirlds, Kara and Kaynak (1995). 3. 5. Over-endorsement of celebrity (Independent variable) Over-endorsement was measured on a seven-point Likert scale and consisted of five items adapted from Mowen and Brown (1981) and Tripp, Jensen and Carlson (1994). Both produced a Cronbach’s alpha of 0. 88 and 0. 84 respectively. 3. 5. 4 Perception of income from endorsement (Independent variable) Similarly, perception of income was measured on a seven-point Likert scale. This was measured with three items adaped from Cronley et al. (1999). These questions are considered reliable due to the high rating of Cronbach’s alpha of 0. 9. RBUS2900 Business Research Method Assignment 2 Part B 14 4. DATA ANALYSIS 4. 1 Procedure It i s proposed that four techniques will be used to analyse the data. The software in which these techniques are based on will be SPSS. (Please refer to appendix 1d for detailed elaboration on techniques) 4. 1. 1 Descriptive statistics Descriptive statistics will produce central tendency, distribution and variability of the results from our experiment. (Zikmund et al. , 2010) This information would be essential as it forms a bigger picture of the data collected.For instance, by comparing the means of the results from the survey, especially that in the experimental group, any change in the perception of the respondents will be detected. The standard deviation obtained will demonstrate how accurate the data is by analysing the variation about the mean. Typically, the smaller the standard deviation, the smaller the variation of the results. 4. 1. 2 Factor analysis After obtaining the bigger picture of the data, factor analysis will be used to analyse the reliability of the questions that w ere asked.This is done by reducing the amount of information in the initial variables and establishing them together into smaller groups called factors. (Gabor, 2010) This will then enable the analysis of the interdependence between the questions, limiting the questions to only those, which provide analysis for the variables. This process of factor analysis is necessary as it allows the researcher to limit the number of questions asked as well as to ensure the reliability of the questions in analysing the variables. RBUS2900 Business Research Method Assignment 2 Part B 15 . 1. 3 Paired sample T-test Once the reliability of the questions is obtained, the results of the survey are then put through a paired samples t-test. A paired samples t-test will allow detection of change after the respondents are given information about the celebrity endorser. This is detected through the variation in the means before and after the experiment. A further step from just descriptive statistics is th at this will test the significance of the data, an essential step to determine the reliability of the analysis.A paired samples t-test will be utilised as the data is collected from one group of participants that are subjected to a â€Å"before-after† treatment. Due to the usage of a Likert scale, the data is considered to be measured on an interval scale and as such, a paired samples t-test is most suitable for analysing the variation in the data. 4. 1. 4 Multiple regression analysis Lastly, essentially the crux of the data analysis is the multiple regression analysis that is used to established strength of association between the independent variables and dependent variable.Two values are being calculated to determine the strength of association. Firstly, the value displayed as adjusted R square will show the percentage of the variation of the dependent variable that is a result of the independent variables in the model. The closer the value of the adjusted R square is to o ne, the better the model. Secondly, the standardized Beta value will be used to determine the strength of each independent variable and its relationship with the dependent variable. Accordingly, the closer the value is to one, the stronger the bond.The significant independent variables are then ranked based on their standardized Beta. Hence, after processing the data through multiple regression analysis, PeTA will be able to establish which independent variable is seen to have a negative or positive relationship with the dependent variable of perception of organisation. This result though not sufficient to prove causality, when coupled with theory spelt out in the RBUS2900 Business Research Method Assignment 2 Part B 16 hypothesis development section, will provide a good idea of the causes of change in perception of organisation. . 2 Expected results Based on a scaled down version of the experiment that was conducted, these are the following results. 4. 2. 1 Factor analysis Firstly, the factor analysis conducted and questions 6-8, 14, 15 and 18 will be removed from the measurement of perception of organisation. This is due to the fact that the eigenvalues were less than 1. 0. The new variable consisting of 20 items had a Cronbach’s alpha of 0. 907. Which is still a reliable count. The measurement for over-endorsement will retain its five items and the Cronbach’s alpha is calculated to be 0. 642.Lastly, the first question for perceived income will be removed from the variable and the new variable consisting of the two questions has a Cronbach’s alpha value of 0. 903. 4. 2. 2 Paired samples t-test Based on the paired samples t-test conducted for the mock experiment, it can be seen that there was a positive increase of t-value which tells use that the mean of the first group was bigger than the mean of the second group. Hence there was a decreased in mean scores as predicted by our hypothesis. RBUS2900 Business Research Method Assignment 2 Pa rt B 17 Model Summary Model R R Square Adjusted R Square 1 . 06 a Std. Error of the Estimate .367 -. 898 Paired Differences 21. 505 Mean Std. Deviation Std. Error Mean 95% Confidence Interval of the Difference Lower Upper 20. 552 Pair 1 PerceptionORGbef PerceivedORGaft overendorsementBE 11. 071 10. 251 3. 874 1. 591 Pair 2 FoverendorsementAF T PerceivedINCOMEb 1. 286 3. 506 1. 325 -1. 957 4. 528 Pair 3 ef perceptionINCOMEa ft 3. 071 2. 370 .896 .879 5. 264 Pair 4 Pair 6 Pair 7 Attractiveness Attractiveness SexyBEF – SexyAFT TemperamentBEF TemperamentAFT -. 286 -. 143 -. 286 .488 . 378 . 488 .184 . 143 . 184 -. 737 -. 492 -. 737 .166 . 207 . 166Figure 4 – Sample paired t-test results 4. 3. 3 Multiple regression analysis Lastly, multiple regression analysis was used to establish association amongst the dependent and independent variables. Through the analysis, it was found that there was a strong negative association (-0. 898) between the variables. This is a clear indic ation that the proposed hypotheses are all correct. 4. 3. 4 Discussion of outcomes Finally, it is clear from the mock up that further research would be necessary in order to fully understand the effects of the independent variables on the dependent variable.This is exceptionally necessary for an organisation such as PeTA due to the high number of RBUS2900 Business Research Method Assignment 2 Part B 18 celebrities that endorse the organisation. Moving forward, it is necessary for PeTA to fully evaluate the background of the celebrities that endorse the organisation as well as to consider the perception of paying the celebrities for the endorsement. However, further research must be done in order to ascertain this claim. The research team would like to propose that PeTA approve the proposal for research to commence.Subsequently, PeTA would be able to expect a research report as well as an oral presentation of the findings from the research team. RBUS2900 Business Research Method Assi gnment 2 Part B 19 References Baker, M. & Churchhill, G. A. 1977. The impact of physically attractive models on advertising evaluations. Journal of Marketing Research, 14(4): 538–555 Bartlett, Kotrlik, & Higgins. 2001. Organizational Research: Determining Appropriate Sample Size in Survey Research. Information Technology, Learning, and Performance Journal, 19(1): 48 Caballero, M. J. , & Pride, W. M. 1984.Selected Effects of Salesperson Sex and Attractiveness in Direct Mail Advertisements, Journal of Marketing, 48(1): 94-100 Chaiken, S. , 1986. Physical appearance and social influence. In: C. P. Herman, M. P. Zanna and E. T. Higgins, eds. Physical appearance, stigma, and social behavior: 143-177, Erlbaum Associates, Hove, UK Cronley, M. L. , Kardes F. R. , Goddard, P. , & Houghton, D. C. 1999. Endorsing Products For The Money: The Role of the Correspondence Bias in Celebrity Advertising. 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Academy of Marketing Science Review, 5: 1–14RBUS2900 Business Research Method Assignment 2 Part B 21 Millsap, R. E. 2009. The Sage Handbook of Quantitative Methods in Psychology, Albert Maydeu-Olivares Sarstedt, M. & Schloderer, M. P. , 2010. Developing a measurement approach. International Journal of Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Marketing, 15: 287 Shamoo A and Resnik D, 2009. Responsible Conduct of Research, 2nd e d Sorum, K. A. , Grape, K. M. , & Silvera, D. 2003. Do dispositional attributions regarding peer endorsers influence product evaluations, Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 44: 39–46 Trimble, C. S. , & Rifon, N. J. 2006.Consumer perceptions of compatibility in cause related marketing messages, International Journal of Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Marketing, 11(1): 29-47 Tripp, C. , Jensen, T. D. , & Carlson, L. 1994. The effects of multiple product endorsements by celebrities, Journal of Consumer Research, 20(4): 535-535 White, D. W. , Goddard, L. & Wilbur, N. 2009. The effects of negative information transference in the celebrity endorsement relationship, International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, 37(4): 322-335 Zikmund, Babin, Carr, & Griffin. 2010. Business Research Methods Eighth Ed.South Western Cengage Learning RBUS2900 Business Research Method Assignment 2 Part B 22 APPENDIX Appendix 1 Table 1a Conceptual definitions Definition Corporate image, the c onsumer’s impression of the company that is producing and selling a given product or brand A person whom the members of an audience would like very much to please, someone whom they like very much Source Goldberg, M. E. & Hartwick Jon. 1990. The Effects of Advertiser Reputation and Extremity of Advertising Claim on Advertising Effectiveness, Journal of Consumer Research, 17(2): 172-179 Mills, J. & Elliot, A. 1965.Opinion change as a function of the communicator’s attractiveness and desire to influence, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1(2): 173-177 Page Concept Perception of organisation 173 Attractiveness 173 Over-endorsement If a celebrity endorses several products, the relation between himself and a particular product is not distinctive, leading to an inference that the nature of the particular product was not the reason for endorsement Mowen, J. C. & Brown, S. W. 1981. On Explaining and predicting the effectiveness of celebrity endorses. Advances in Co nsumer Research, 8(1): 437441 37 Perceived income from endorsement Perception that a celebrity endorser is being highly paid for an advertisement Cronley, M. L. , Kardes, F. R. , Goddard, P. & Houghton, D. C. 1999. Endorsing products for money: The role of the correspondence bias in celebrity advertising, Advances in Consumer Research, 26: 627– 631 628 RBUS2900 Business Research Method Assignment 2 Part B 23 Table 1b Hypotheses Hypothesis Data analysis method used H1: The perceived physical attractiveness of an endorser will result in an increased positive perception of the endorsed organisationH2: In situations whereby celebrities are seen to endorse multiple products that might be contradictory to the nature of the organisation, there will be a decrease in positive perception of the endorsed organisation. Paired sampled t-test to compare mean scores of before and after the experiment to analyse for variation. Multiple regression analysis to investigate the effect of the ind ependent variables (Perceived physical attractiveness, overendorsement of celebrity, perceived income from endorsement) on the dependent variable (perception of the endorsed organisation)H3: The more a celebrity is perceived to be paid for the endorsement, the more negative the perception of the organisation. RBUS2900 Business Research Method Assignment 2 Part B 24 Table 1c List of measures Measure Scale Source Sarstedt, M. & Schloderer, M. P. 2010. Developing a measurement approach for reputation of non-profit organizations. International Journal of Nonprofit Voluntary Sector Marketing, 15: 276–299 26-item measure of perception of non-profit organisation 7-point Likert scale 4-item measure of attractiveness Bipolar semantic differential scaleDeShields Jr, Oscar W. , Kara, Ali, & Kaynak, Erdener. 1996. Source effects in purchase decisions: The impact of physical attractiveness and accent of salesperson, International Journal of Research in Marketing, 13(1): 89-101 Mowen, J. C . & Brown, S. W. 1981. On Explaining and predicting the effectiveness of celebrity endorses. Advances in Consumer Research, 8(1): 437-441 Cronley, M. L. , Kardes, F. R. , Goddard, P. & Houghton, D. C. 1999. Endorsing products for money: The role of the correspondence bias in celebrity advertising, Advances in Consumer Research, 26: 627–631 -item measure of overendorsement 7-point Likert scale 3-item measure of perceived income from endorsement 7-point Likert scale Sorum, K. A. , Grape, K. M. & Silvera, D. 2003. Do dispositional attributions regarding peer endorsers influence product evaluations? , Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 44: 39–46 RBUS2900 Business Research Method Assignment 2 Part B 25 Table 1d Technique Data analysis techniques Definition Assumptions Important terms – Mean = total score divided by n. -Std. deviation= variation of the sample. – Min/Max= highest and lowest score in the sample. Skewness= to measure the symmetry of the distribut ion – Kurtosis= how the scores cluster together – Eigenvalues (to determine the number of factors) = the amount of variance associated with the factor – Cronbach’s alpha= to check the reliability of the scale (accepted if Cronbach’s alpha;0. 7) – Normality of distribution – Interval data – Confidence interval (the range of the data)= For 95% of confidence interval, Sig value should not exceed 0. 05 – T value and critical t value – Degree of freedom (to determine the critical t value) – Sig value (p-value)