Friday, May 31, 2019
The Picture of Dorian Gray   The soul is a terrible reality. It can be bought and sold. It can be poisoned or made perfect. Theres a soul in each one of us. I know it. This is a statement made by Dorian Gray to his best friend, Lord Henry, a few hours after he realizes that his behavior of the last eighteen years has been absolutely terrible.             First I shall explain the way Dorian Gray illogical his ability to be good and how he found it again eighteen years later.             aft(prenominal) Sybil Vanes death, the young lad was first seized by terrible remorse. subsequently abandoning her in the theatre with most cruel words, he reconsidered his action during the night and was ready to forgive her and marry her, as he had promised. So the news of her self-annihilation was of course quite an unpleasant shock to him.             Unf ortunately Lord Henry was there to influence him with his corrupt and selfish personality. He taught... ...the soul exists. The soul is a terrible reality, because it is stronger than any physical phenomenon of belief or disbelief. Whatever you do, it always remains in the depth of your heart and you will always suppose on it, as you search on your reality.             If you poison it by neglect or ignorance, you try to cheat it for what seems a cheap and easy price, but you cannot give and separate from a reality that you are a part of the unavoidable price of buying it back is very, very, high. The Picture of Dorian Gray Essay The disposition of Dorian -- The Picture of The Picture of Dorian Gray   The soul is a terrible reality. It can be bought and sold. It can be poisoned or made perfect. Theres a soul in each one of us. I know it. This is a statement made by Dorian Gray to his best friend, Lord Henry, a f ew hours after he realizes that his behavior of the last eighteen years has been absolutely terrible.             First I shall explain the way Dorian Gray broken his ability to be good and how he found it again eighteen years later.             After Sybil Vanes death, the young lad was first seized by terrible remorse. After abandoning her in the theatre with most cruel words, he reconsidered his action during the night and was ready to forgive her and marry her, as he had promised. So the news of her self-destruction was of course quite an unpleasant shock to him.             Unfortunately Lord Henry was there to influence him with his corrupt and selfish personality. He taught... ...the soul exists. The soul is a terrible reality, because it is stronger than any physical phenomenon of belief or disbelief. Whatever you do, it always remains in t he depth of your heart and you will always depend on it, as you depend on your reality.             If you poison it by neglect or ignorance, you try to sell it for what seems a cheap and easy price, but you cannot sell and separate from a reality that you are a part of the unavoidable price of buying it back is very, very, high.
Thursday, May 30, 2019
Our Dysfunctional HaverworldAs we seniors graduate and head out into the world, genius of the things I attend most of us will seek is community. This seems to be one of the requirements for a sustainable society one that is adaptive according to small, several(a) regions, so that topical anesthetic conditions be met with appropriate technologies, and one that functions with a strong ethic based on social ties. In my future I privation to witness I am included in and contributing to a supportive, caring and ethical community, whose values of sustainability determine our relationship to nature. I have not found this at Haverford College, as a collective society and an institution. (I bank you all can have-to doe with to this from Swarthmore as well. I doubt the two argon really actually different.) In fact, Haverford has helped me define what I do not want to be a part of--a too large corporation that deals in the bullion of its own prestigiousness as well as its funding, concentrated only on maximizing the profits of this kind, rather than valuing the equity and justice that we have agree should overrule economic decisions. Al Gores comparison of US society to a dysfunctional family translates perfectly to the society at Haverford. This helps to explain the inadequacy of ethics concerning justice and sustainability, and suggests that there is hope to resolve these problems.At Haverford and Swarthmore we embody the Cartesian model developed in the scientific revolution that focuses on the separation between military man and nature, mind and body. Our colleges curb an extreme version of what Gore calls the disembodied intellect(524) in which we value our abstract academic horizons above all else, as we win the fullest expression of thought while simultaneously stifling the e... ...ion of forest. We are committed to overconsumption in our extravagant use of paper, purchases of products to decorate our rooms and clean ourselves, and waste of al iment in the large cafeteria. I notice that most of us in this class have removed ourselves from these aspects of college culture as much as possible, to harbour ourselves from it. I personally shield myself by trying to limit my interactions to those with my close friends, with whom my relationships are much less dysfunctional. I hope you all will relate in around form to my analysis, and I hope as a class we can carry this further. In pinpointing the aspects of liberal arts college life that lack the ethics that are desirable and necessary to build sustainable communities, I hope we will dare to envision in detail the situation that would work on us feel fulfilled and at peace with ourselves and our environment. Our Dysfunctional Haverworld Essay -- Personal Narrative Descriptive POur Dysfunctional HaverworldAs we seniors graduate and head out into the world, one of the things I bet most of us will seek is community. This seems to be one of the requirements for a sustainable society one that is adaptive according to small, diverse regions, so that local conditions are met with appropriate technologies, and one that functions with a strong ethic based on social ties. In my future I want to feel I am included in and contributing to a supportive, caring and ethical community, whose values of sustainability determine our relationship to nature. I have not found this at Haverford College, as a collective society and an institution. (I hope you all can relate to this from Swarthmore as well. I doubt the two are really very different.) In fact, Haverford has helped me define what I do not want to be a part of--a large corporation that deals in the currency of its own prestige as well as its funding, concentrated only on maximizing the profits of this kind, rather than valuing the equity and justice that we have agreed should overrule economic decisions. Al Gores comparison of US society to a dysfunctional family translates perfectly to the socie ty at Haverford. This helps to explain the lack of ethics concerning justice and sustainability, and suggests that there is hope to resolve these problems.At Haverford and Swarthmore we embody the Cartesian model developed in the scientific revolution that focuses on the separation between humans and nature, mind and body. Our colleges contain an extreme version of what Gore calls the disembodied intellect(524) in which we value our abstract academic thoughts above all else, as we encourage the fullest expression of thought while simultaneously stifling the e... ...ion of forest. We are committed to overconsumption in our extravagant use of paper, purchases of products to decorate our rooms and clean ourselves, and waste of food in the large cafeteria. I notice that most of us in this class have removed ourselves from these aspects of college culture as much as possible, to shield ourselves from it. I personally shield myself by trying to limit my interactions to those with my clos e friends, with whom my relationships are much less dysfunctional. I hope you all will relate in some form to my analysis, and I hope as a class we can carry this further. In pinpointing the aspects of liberal arts college life that lack the ethics that are desirable and necessary to build sustainable communities, I hope we will dare to envision in detail the situation that would make us feel fulfilled and at peace with ourselves and our environment.
Introduction of the strategyNo brass section can plan in detail every shot of its current or future actions, just all(a) organizations can benefit from some idea of where they are heading and how they could get there. Put another way, all organizations need some strategic direction. at a time the operations function has understood its role in the business and after it has articulated the performance objectives, which define its parcel to strategy, it needs to formulate a curing of general principles, which will guide its decision-making. This is the operations strategy of the company.Here we assume when an organization articulates its strategy it has made decisions, which induct the organization to a particular club of actions (as opposed to a different strategy). The mannikin of its subsequent decisions then reflects its continuing commitment to the same direction. If the pattern of its decisions changes, some change in its strategic direction is indicated.Operation strateg y content and processOperation strategy concerns the pattern of strategic decisions and actions, which set the role, objectives, and activities of the operation. As with any type of strategy, we can ascertain its content and process separately. Here we treat content and process as followsThe content of operations strategy comprises the special(prenominal) decisions and actions, which set the operations role, objectives and activities.The process of operations strategy is the method that is used to make the specific content decisions.Specify the content of operations strategy trading operations strategy is clearly part of an organizations total strategy, but people on the subject have slightly different views and definitions.Introduction of the outline Business, Administration Introduction of the strategyNo organization can plan in detail every aspect of its current or future actions, but all organizations can benefit from some idea of where they are heading and how they could g et there. Put another way, all organizations need some strategic direction. Once the operations function has understood its role in the business and after it has articulated the performance objectives, which define its contribution to strategy, it needs to formulate a set of general principles, which will guide its decision-making. This is the operations strategy of the company.Here we assume when an organization articulates its strategy it has made decisions, which commit the organization to a particular set of actions (as opposed to a different strategy). The pattern of its subsequent decisions then reflects its continuing commitment to the same direction. If the pattern of its decisions changes, some change in its strategic direction is indicated.Operation strategy content and processOperation strategy concerns the pattern of strategic decisions and actions, which set the role, objectives, and activities of the operation. As with any type of strategy, we can consider its content and process separately. Here we treat content and process as followsThe content of operations strategy comprises the specific decisions and actions, which set the operations role, objectives and activities.The process of operations strategy is the method that is used to make the specific content decisions.Specify the content of operations strategyOperations strategy is clearly part of an organizations total strategy, but people on the subject have slightly different views and definitions.
Wednesday, May 29, 2019
The Role of Genes in the Development of Behavior The debate concerning the wreak of genes on human behavior has been on-going for centuries. The nature vs. nurture (or heredity Vs. environment) debates are one of the longest running, and most controversial, both inside and outside psychology. It is concerned with nigh of the most fundamental questions a human being could ask, such as Why are we they way we are? and why do we develop as we do? historically this debate has been fought from extreme perspectives, arguing that it is either nature (an individuals heredity genetic make up), or nurture (the environmental influences upon an individual) that determine a persons behavior. However in modern psychology is has generally been accepted that these are impossible positions to take. It is neither true to say that development is caused either by genetic factors or by environmental ones, but instead a constant interaction between the two. This topic is ge nerally researched by examining individuals intelligence, for example, by comparing the results of tests on both monozygotic (MZ) and Dizygotic twins, brought up in shared and non-shared environments. Most researchers now agree that both heredity and environment contribute to intelligence, heredity and environment interact in various ways and that extremely poor, as well as enriched environment can interfere with the realization of a persons intelligence, regardless of his or her heredity. Although there are many problems in investigating this topic, these basic assumptions suggest that genes infact do play a very significant role in the development of behavior. The questio... ... --------------------------------------------------------------------- 1 character 1 Hardy, M., and Heyes, S. (1996) pg232 2 Source 2 Dobson, C, B., Hardy, M., etc (1981) pg 217 3 Source 3 Gross,r., McIlveen,R., Coolican, H., Clamp, A., and Russell, J., (2000) pg 640 4 Sour ce 2 Dobson, C., Hardy, M., etc (1981) pg 219 5 Source 2 Dobson, C., Hardy, M., etc (1981) pg 219 6 Source 1 Hardy, M., Heyes, S., (1996) pg 237 7 Source 1 Hardy, M., Heyes, S., (1996) pg 237 8 Source 2 Dobson, C, B., Hardy, M., etc (1981) pg 220 9 Source 4 Gross, R., (2003) pgs 600 - 601 10 Source 4 Gross, R., (2003) pg 603 11 Source 4 Gross, R., (2003) pg 603 12 Source 4 Gross, R., (2003) pg 603 13 Source 4 Gross R., (2003) pg 603 14 Source 5 Heyes, N., (2000) pg 18
Innocent Children, Violent Gangs 18, 059 violent felonies, 690 deaths, and 13,000 hard-core killers. What is the horrible cause of these striking statistics? Gangs. Gangs atomic number 18 a problem in nearly every state and 83 percent of the largest cities in the United States. The problem of gangs and their negative impact on the communities they inhabit in continues to grow and nothing seems to be able to stop this powerful growth. Gangs not only exist in just inner cities anymore, but in towns and suburban communities as well. Gangs are affecting more and more children everyday, and this problem needs to be stopped. No one knows exactly how many children and youth nationally are gang members or join a gang in an average day, but the numbers are astonishing and increasing. What is it about gangs that is so charitable to children? Gangs offer identity which a child may not have felt he or she had before. Gangs also offer belonging, protection, money, sex, and sta tus. The majority of the children who become affect in such groups as gangs usually dont have a sense family or belonging to anyone, are lonely, and are looking for friends. Some may speak up that gangs are actually a good thing in that they offer so many positive things to a childs life. That is where some go wrong, and make the biggest drop off of their lives. Gangs are responsible for ten to twenty percent of the criminal activity in the United States, which estimates to an approximate thirty to sixty billion dollars of taxpayers money a year. Gangs are often associated with the use of drugs, including heroine and marijuana. Gangs also are connected to the illegal use of many weapons and as a result, many bloody murders. So, it is... ...f Violence A Study of Violence on the Street, Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, Vol. 30 NO. 1, February 1993, pg 88-112. Kotlowitz, Alex, There Are No Children Here, Anchor Books Doubleday, 1991. Krivo, Peterson, Di sadvantaged Neighborhoods and urban Crime, Social Forces, Vol. 75 No. 2 December 1996, pg. 619-645. Lo, Chun-Nui, A Social Model of Gang Related Violence, Free Inquiry In Creative Sociology, Vol 19 no. 1, May 1991, pg. 36-43. Sambar, Chuck. http//www.sambar.com/sambar/chuck/aregangs.htm Omega Boys Club. http//www.street-soldiers.org/omega/omega1.html Alanzo, Felipe and Zavala, Eric. http//www.cwrl.utexas.edu/%7Edliss/student_projects/final_project/felipe2/index.htm http//home.navisoft.com/requiredreading/Page6.html Cantrell, Mary Lynn. http//www.bluemarble.net/%7Enes/hot/htopicgang.html
Tuesday, May 28, 2019
Use of Satire in Kurt Vonneguts Cats CradleKurt Vonnegut said in The Vonnegut Statement (1973), in an interview with Robert Scholes, that one of his reasons for indite is to poison minds with humanityto encourage them to make a better world (107). This idea works quite well in Vonneguts book, Cats Cradle. It is a satirical account of a mans quest to write a book about the day the world ended (refering to the day the atomic bomb was dropped on Hiroshima), which he neer finishes. What we get is a raw look at humans trying desperately to find a sense of purpose in their lives through contrasting means such as religion, science, etc.Vonnegut uses satire that is both dark and humorous to pursue this point. A good example is found in the approach of the book where he writes, No function in this book is true. Live by the foma Harmless untruths that make you brave and kind and healthy and happy.Bokonon, we learn, is a religion that is made up of staff vine lies (12). Truth was the enemy of the people, because the truth was so terrible, so Bokonon the creator of the religion made it his business to provide the people with better and better lies (118). We also learn that science takes the opposite opinion. One of the men who helped develop the atomic bomb tells us, The more truth we have to work with, the richer we become (36).I think one thing that Vonnegut is trying to show us is that man too easily accepts things as valid without questioning. Refering to this, Newt, another character, says, No wonder kids grow up crazy. A cats place of birth is nothing but a bunch of Xs between somebodys hands, and little kids look and look and look at all those XsNo blest cat, and no damn cradle (114). Cats Cradle is full of these kinds of poisons not only about religion and science, but also about many other human frailties as well. In a way, Vonnegut is holding a mirror (that hides no imperfections) up to humanity in order that humanity might see its own the folly and futili ty and hence be impelled to try and improve. I think Vonneguts hope is that this book will allow people to laugh at themselves while also fashioning them think about how they are directing their own lives.
Use of Satire in Kurt Vonneguts Cats CradleKurt Vonnegut said in The Vonnegut State custodyt (1973), in an interview with Robert Scholes, that one of his reasons for writing is to poison minds with humanityto bring forward them to make a better world (107). This idea works quite well in Vonneguts book, Cats Cradle. It is a satirical story of a mans quest to economise a book about the day the world ended (refering to the day the atomic bomb was dropped on Hiroshima), which he never finishes. What we get is a new look at humans elbow greaseing desperately to find a sense of purpose in their lives through different means such as religion, science, etc.Vonnegut uses satire that is both dark and humorous to pursue this point. A good example is found in the prelude of the book where he writes, nought in this book is true. Live by the foma Harmless un faithfulnesss that make you brave and kind and healthy and happy.Bokonon, we learn, is a religion that is made up of bittersweet lies (1 2). Truth was the enemy of the people, because the truth was so terrible, so Bokonon the creator of the religion made it his business to provide the people with better and better lies (118). We also learn that science takes the opposite opinion. One of the men who helped develop the atomic bomb tells us, The more truth we have to work with, the richer we become (36).I think one thing that Vonnegut is trying to show us is that man too easily accepts things as valid without questioning. Refering to this, Newt, another character, says, No wonder kids grow up crazy. A cats cradle is nothing but a bunch of Xs between somebodys hands, and little kids look and look and look at all those XsNo damn cat, and no damn cradle (114). Cats Cradle is beat of these kinds of poisons not only about religion and science, but also about many other human frailties as well. In a way, Vonnegut is holding a mirror (that hides no imperfections) up to humanity in order that humanity might see its own the fol ly and futility and thus be impelled to try and improve. I think Vonneguts hope is that this book will allow people to laugh at themselves while also making them think about how they be directing their own lives.
Monday, May 27, 2019
Multi- grad t severallying refers to the teaching of students of various successions, grades and abilities in the same group. It is referred to variously in the literature as multi direct, multiple set, composite segmentation, vertical group , family classes, and, in the case of one- instructor coachs, unitary schools. It is to be distinguished from mono-grade teaching in which students within the same grade are assumed to be more similar in terms of age and ability.However, substantial variation in ability within a grade practically leads to mixed-ability teaching. There can also be broad variations in age within the same grade, especially in developing countries, where the age of entry to school varies and where grade repetition is common. This condition of multi-age-within-grade teaching appears not to have generated such universal recognition, perhaps because it occurs more often in developing than in developed countries.The summary of experiences from Australia, Banglade sh, Peoples Republic of China, India, Indonesia, Republic of Korea, Malaysia, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan, Philippines and Thailand confirmed that basal curriculum documents and their associated lists of minimum learning competencies have not been specifically designed for use by teachers in multi-grade schools school plans, instructional materials and methodological guidelines are often difficult to apply to multi-grade teaching situations there is a shortage of support materials for teachers and individualised instructional materials for learners there is a need for more work on the kinds of continuous evaluation, diagnostic testing, remediation and feedback which would best assist multi-grade teaching and added that although many teachers work in multi-grade teaching situations few countries have developed special teacher training curricula for pre- or in-service training.Teaching practice during preservice is invariably carried out in mono-grade schools teachers posted to teach in multi-grade schools develop a sort of psychological derangement from the school the breedingal system as a whole pays inadequate attention to the proper functioning of multi-grade schools through, for example, not filling vacant teaching positions in rural areas, the absence of systems of teacher accountability, a lack of basic physical facilities in these schools, lack of training for supervisors of multi-grade schools and a general inattentiveness of education officers to the inescapably of these schools Factors Contributing to the establishment of Multigrade Teaching * * Cultural factors * Socio-economic factors.* Benefits of multigrade teaching * Richer learning environment * Greater community involvement. Development of health competition * Greater understanding in the midst of learners and educators Advantages and Challenges of Teaching Multi- aim Classes When faced with the challenge of a multi-level schoolroom many teachers do not know where to start. They fea r that the preparation impart take much prospicienter, and that the students will be more demanding. Schools that have multi-level classes often have limited budgets, and teachers whitethorn fear that they will not be paid for what they are worth. However, it is only by looking at the advantages of the multi-level classroom and employing strategies to overcome the challenges, that teachers can achieve success.Advantages of Multi-level classrooms * Students are able to learn at their own pace * Students learn to work closely in a group * Students become independent learners * Students develop strong relationships with their peers * Students become partners in learning Challenges of Multi-level classrooms * Finding trance teaching resources and material * Organizing appropriate groupings within the class * Building an effective self-access centre in the classroom * Determining the individual needs of each student * Ensuring that all students are challenged and interested Teaching Method Strategies Experiment with different types of groupings to find the ones that work best.You may find that cross-ability pairs work best for certain types of activities, while like-ability small groups work break up for others. If possible, use a wide variety of groupings to keep things interesting for your class. Use a simple schedule that is similar each day. Here is an example 1. galvanise with a warm-up that involves the whole group. 2. Break part of the class off into one type of grouping (i. e. pairs) and work with part of the class on a lesson, grammar point, or activity. 3. Break off the class into another type of grouping (i. e. small groups) and have the other students use self-access materials. 4. Bring the class back together for a whole group activity/game.Isolate students within the class who are interested in peer tutoring. This doesnt have to be the student with the highest level of the subject. Your students who fall somewhere in the middle may in fact be the most valuable to you, as they strive to attain a level of competency comparable to the most advanced students. Remind your students that the best way to practice and improve a new language is to teach it to someone else. go steady enlisting a volunteer. Limited budgets or low enrolment are often the reasons behind multi-level classes. For this reason, it may be difficult to convince administrators or managers that you need a paid assistant. If you feel overwhelmed, consider hiring a volunteer.Finding someone who is interested in helping you with your preparation work and teaching may not be as difficult as you think. ARTICLES ABOUT MULTI-GRADE TEACHING/CLASSES Multigrade classes bring more children to school Friday 30th of March 2012 PASIG CITY, March 30 Will a teacher not hold class if there are just a few enrollees? Should a student drop out if the school is furthermost from home or there is not enough teachers and classroom? If you ask the Department of education, the answ er is no because it continues to find ways to bring children to school in order to complete their basic education. One of these is the holding of multigrade classes.A multigrade class is a class consisting of two or more different grade levels at heart a iodine grade classroom handled by one teacher for an entire school year. It is offered in elementary schools located in distant and sparsely-populated localities, a statement from DepEd said. Figures from DepEd show that there are close to a million enrollees in multigrade classes across the country. training depositary Armin Luistro said most of the students attending multigrade classes are learners who belong to isolated and poor communities, indigenous peoples or those who reside in far-flung mountains and islands where schools are far apart from each other. This is part of our thrust to change access to education and make the learning experience inclusive to as many sectors.In effect, we are bringing more students to school , he added. If a class does not meet the ask number of enrollees and therefore it is not viable to conduct a class of limited number of pupils, the supposed enrollees are unified into a single class and taught by one teacher, Luistro explained. The small number of students for each grade level the shortage of teachers the distance from the community to the nearest school and the inadequacy of funds and classrooms are reasons that necessitate the organization of multigrade classes. In the Philippine public school system, classes with two grade levels inside a single classroom and handled by the same teacher is called combination classes.Those with three grade levels in one classroom and handled by a single teacher is called a multigrade or multi-level class. This means that a multigrade classroom mixes children with different skills and abilities, different breedingal levels and needs while working together under the guidance of one teacher. The truth is long before multi-tasking became a buzzword, our teachers were actually already living up to the word, Luistro said. While DepEd has always recognized the existence of multi-grade classes it was only in 1990 that the department started to consider the perfunctory organization and continuing operation of multigrade classrooms all over the country in keeping with the goal of Education For All (EFA).Thus, DepEd continues to invest in teachers training, curriculum development and in the preparation of learning materials appropriate for multi-grade classes to improve elementary education especially in underserved and remote areas. (DepEd) More Than One Million Filipino Students support Classmates At Different Grade Levels Academia March 30, 2012 The Philippine Department of Education says more than one million students are enrolled in multigrade classes, where three or more grade levels are taught by a single teacher. AsianScientist (Mar. 30, 2012) Should a teacher cancel a class if there are only a few enroll ees? And should a student drop out if the school is far from home or if there are insufficent teachers and classroom? The Philippine Department of Education (DepEd) says no. Instead, it has found one way to solve this problem, by holding multigrade classes.In the Philippine public school system, classes with two grade levels inside a single classroom taught by the same teacher are called combination classes. Classes with three grade levels conducted in one classroom taught by a single teacher are called a multigrade or multilevel classes. Figures from DepEd show that there are close to a million enrollees in multigrade classes across the country. Education Secretary Armin Luistro said most of the students attending multigrade classes belong to isolated and financially challenged communities, are indigenous peoples, and reside in far-flung mountains and islands where schools are far apart from each other. The small number of students for each grade level, the shortage of teachers, th e distance from the community to the nearest school, and the nadequacy of funds and classrooms are reasons that necessitate the organization of multigrade classes, he explained. This means that children with different skills and abilities, developmental levels, and needs are mixed in a class under the guidance of one teacher. This is part of our thrust to democratize access to education and make the learning experience inclusive to as many sectors. In effect, we are bringing more students to school, Luistro explained. If a class does not meet the required number of enrollees and therefore it is not viable to conduct a class of limited number of pupils, the supposed enrollees are merged into a single class and taught by one teacher, he added.Although the DepEd has always recognized the existence of multigrade classes, it was only in 1990 that the department started to formally acknowledge multigrade classrooms, in keeping with the goal of Education For All. Source Philippine Departme nt of Education. Disclaimer This article does not necessarily reflect the views of AsianScientist or its staff. A Review on Multigrade Education by admin on Jan. 09, 2012 Multigrade teaching occurs within a graded system of education when a single class contains two or more student grade levels. It is contrasted with the vulgar pattern of classroom organization in graded systems where a single classroom contains students of only one grade level.In many graded systems, age and grade are congruent, so a grade level is also equivalent to a particular age group of students. However, this may not be the case in systems where grade level satellite phones repetition and acceleration are common. There are three important reasons why multigrade teaching may occur in both developed and developing countries. First, multigrading is often associated with small schools in remote and sparsely populated areas. In such schools, there may be only one, two or three teachers, yet they offer a complete cycle of primary education. If that cycle consists of eight grade levels, accordingly each of these teachers must deal with multigrade classes. These small schools are also sometimes referred to as multigrade schools.Multigrade schools have attracted attention in the developing country context because of their emf to increase primary school participation rates. By bringing the school closer to the community, they countenance more children, especially girls, into school. Second, multigrade teaching is also common in larger urban and suburban schools. In some countries, it is a response to uneven student enrollment. For example, a school with a two and a fractional grade entry may have to combine two grade levels to make up class sizes. Also, in countries where teacher absenteeism is high, and there is no make out, grades may be combined to avoid having a class with no teacher present. A single teacher then has to deal with two grade level groups together.Third, multigrade teach ing may be a deliberate response to educational problems. In developed countries, this is linked to the multiage perspective. Proponents of mixed age grouping make out that there are sound pedagogical reasons for placing students of different ages together in the same classroom. Mixed age classes, it is argued, stimulate childrens social development and encourage greater classroom cooperation. These arguments are seldom raised in the developing country literature, although several commentators take the view that multigrade organized classes are potentially a cost effective means of providing quality education in difficult to reach areas.
Sunday, May 26, 2019
Norman FosterNorman Foster is a major contributor to twentieth century architecture both(prenominal) in the westernworld and further afield. After starting his studies in architecture over 50 years ago he has designeda range of buildings (and bridges) and continues to produce outstanding designs today. Aswell asexploring Fosters life this essay will focus primarily on two of Fosters buildings, Creek VeanHouse in Cornwall and the Willis Building in Ipswich (originally the Willis Faber and DumasHeadquarters).Born in Manchester on 1 June 1935 to working coterie parents, Foster was a bright studentwho after attending a private school and a grammar school was pressurised to leave early in order toearn a living. It wasnt until 1956 after working in a bakery, a city treasurers office, a factory,selling furniture, spending while in the Royal Air Force on field of study service and studying commerciallaw that he finally started his studies in architecture.Graduating from Manchester uni versity schoolof architecture and city planning in 1961, Foster won the Henry fellowship to study at Yaleuniversity where he obtained his masters degree and also met Richard Rogers, another Britisharchitect whom he became good friends with. In 1963 Rogers and Foster along with theirrespective wives Su and Wendy formed squad 4, a practice cognise for its spunky-tech designs and thegroup behind Creek Vean House. In 1967 Team 4 ended and Foster and Wendy set up FosterAssociates (now Foster and Partners).Between 1968 and 1983 Foster collaborated on a number ofprojects including the Samuel Beckett Theatre project with Richard Buckminster Fuller whohappened to be one of his idols. Foster called him a lone voice, whose work with geodesicsdemonstrated how building form could be both economic and ecological. Orientation andbuilding form became, for Foster, touchstones in his design of ecological architecture. Michael J. Crosbie, ArchitectureWeek.Foster Associates has produced many well known works such as theSainsbury Centre in Norwich, the Hongkong and shanghai bank, the Millau Viaduct in France, theBritish Museum Great Court in London and the Swiss Re tower in London to name but a few. Over account statement and Theory of Architecture the years Foster Associates has achieved more than 190 awards and won over 50 competitions forits work, in 1990 Foster was Knighted and in 1999 he was honoured with a life peerage giving himthe title Lord Foster Of Thames Bank, in the same year he became the 21 st Pritzker ArchitecturePrize laureate.Creak Vean theatre of operations was the first work of group Team 4, make in 1964, it was commissionedby Marcus Brumwell as a home for himself and his wife who were the parents of Su Rogers. Although Foster has concentrated more on buildings for the workplace, stick outs which showsimilarities to Creek Vean are the Jaffe category and Murray Mews which were also designed by Team4, these buildings are orientated to make the most of t heir views and have large slanting glass walls,similar to the glass walk expressive style and large glass walls in Creek Vean. The Willis Faber Dumas Headquarters in Ipswich was built from 1971-1975 as aworkplace for around 1300 employees.Foster has mostly designed buildings for the workplaceand is very good at blueprint space for employees to enjoy their surroundings. The three storeybuilding is surrounded by a glass facade, similar to that in some of his later buildings such as HearstTower in New York City, the Swiss Re Headquarters in London, the HSBC UK Headquarters inLondon and City Hall in London. The facade also has a curved appearance, with no hard edges orcorners, similar to the Swiss Re and City Hall buildings, the American Air Museum and the newWillis Headquarters in London.Inside the Willis Faber and Dumas Headquarters escalators lead up finished the profound atrium, in Fosters Hongkong and Shanghai bank he uses a similar approach buton a larger scale with a ten sto rey atrium and the escalators leading up to the briny banking hall. TheIpswich building established a couple of themes that Foster returned to in project after project howthe building meets the ground in an accommodating way how light, views, and the internalenvironment can be adjusted and modified and how to introduce green space into an urbanenvironment such as an office building. ArchitectureWeek Creek Vean House is positioned overlooking the Fal estuary in Cornwall on a steepriverbank. The house is made up of two separate blocks at different angles to each other contact lensedtogether by a long glass-roofed corridor which was employ as a gallery. One of the blocks is one storeyhigh and contains the bedrooms and studio and the other block is two storeys high and contains theliving room and dining room, the ground floor ooms are squeeze back into the hillside and the onestorey blocks roof is covered in vegetation, this gives the impression the house is carved into thelandscape . All the main(prenominal) rooms have large sliding doors off the main corridor and are angled so thatthey have the best views possible out over the estuary, this results in the rooms being fan shapedwith very angular corners. The house is constructed of exposed concrete blocks and reinforcedconcrete slabs, the floors are slate. Outside the building, winding steps lead down the slope fromthe access road above the house.They step down through the building over the corridor that linksthe two blocks (the corridor has a solid roof at this point), emphasising the split in the two parts ofthe building and continue down through the garden to a boat house on the shore below. The Willis Faber Dumas Headquarters is situated in Ipswich. unlike many office buildingsit is only three storeys high and is spread out to fit in with the shape of the surrounding streets, withthe curved glass facade showing reflections of the surrounding buildings. On entering the buildingthere is a central atrium wi th escalators leading right up to the rooftop restaurant.Overlooking theatrium are the different storeys with open plan office space, the layout of the office space and factthat it is so open plan gives the workplace a very communal feel. orientation is directyou alwaysknow where you are, one can move freely, the sun penetrates everywhere and there are only a fewvisual barriers. Norman Foster. The building was also built with a rooftop garden and aswimming pool for the employees to use in their lunch breaks but the swimming pool has sincebeen covered with a glass floor.Around the time Creek Vean was built (1964) James Sterling had just built the LeicesterUniversity engineering building (1963). There are similarities between their work, both use a mass ofHistory and Theory of Architecture glass and non standard geometry for walls however where Fosters house tries to blend in with thesurrounding area the University building is very bold and brutal. Another house built around thesam e period is Hanselmann House in Indiana, 1967 by Michael Graves. This house is verymodernist with lots of open spaces and like Creek Vean it uses steps as a link to the house.VannaVenturi House was built between 1962-1964 by Robert Venturi. Unlike Creek Vean which blends inwith its environment Venturis house really tries to make a statement. Around the time the Willis Faber and Dumas Headquarters was built (1971-1975),The Creek Vean House shows similarities to Frank Lloyd Wrights buildings, particularlyFallingwater built from 1935-1937. Wright designed the house around the surroundings, similar toFoster and so it appears that the house is almost growing out of the rock at a lower place it. In both housessteps are used as a passageway from the house down to the water. History and Theory of Architecture
Saturday, May 25, 2019
In Camilla Townsends book, Pocahontas and the Powhatan Dilemma, Townsend points out that there are many diachronic inaccuracies and myths that are associated with the written report of Pocahontas. Using historical evidence to computer backup the story of Pocahontas, Townsend try to create an accurate ageline bringing the past to the present. At the same time, the Disney remove Pocahontas attempted to depict Algonquian culture accurately, however, according to report, much of the material presented in the take in is full of misconceptions and is historically imprecise. In fact, Disneys Pocahontas epitomizes John coat pisser and Pocahontas as heroes who prevented a war between the Algonquian aborigine American tribes and the colonists who were living in Jamestown. However, historical evidence proves that at the time John Smith came into amour with Powhatan, Pocahontas was barely a young child around the age of ten and, thus had very little influence over her father. Additio nally, the take away depicts John Smith as a leader who was looked up to by the other colonists, trance historical records prove that he had make many enemies by the time he had left Jamestown.1 Disney inaccurately portrayed particular pieces of the Native American experience with the European colonists, specifically regarding Pocahontas, yet, it is important to consider the audience that this part of history was being presented to. One of the biggest historical inaccuracies presented in the Disney film Pocahontas is the crawl in story between John Smith and Pocahontas. The film exhibited John Smith and Pocahontas as fall madly in delight at first sight. This love is represented in the film through the colors of the wind which can often be seen circling Smith or Pocahontas. In the book, Townsend provides evidence of a kind between the two that include only friendship, laughter, and education, but not love. A demonstration of this relationship would be when Pocahontas participa ted in a class of mutual language instruction with John Smith.2 In fact, it is from these lessons that Smith was able to write down the only full Powhatan sentences to ever be recorded. While there was no love between Smith and Pocahontas, historical evidence has shown that Smith thought about Pocahontas in familiarways. Actually, council investigation openly ac knowledged that he made lewd comments about her or having even done things to her in jokes, or in moments of sexual arousal.3 The legitimate love story in Pocahontas occurred between John Rolfe and Pocahontas at the Jamestown settlement a few years by and by Smith had made contact with the Algonquian tribe. Unfortunately, Rolfe was not even represented in the first Pocahontas film.Another historical inaccuracy that can be seen in the Disney film is the physical painting of both John Smith and Pocahontas. The film portrays Smith as a young, tall, blonde-haired, blue-eyed colonist who is charming and interested in protec ting the Native Americans after coming into contact with Pocahontas. In contrast, historical evidence mentions that he was interested in control, and his intent was to subjugate the Native Americans so that they could be made to work for their conquerors.4 Smith was particularly interested in power and control over the Native Americans to further the cause in the New World for the English, which regrettably had passed the English by for at least a century.5 Interestingly, Smith is portrayed in the film as being a young adult, of alike(p) age to Pocahontas however, in reality he was a middle-aged man with a large beard, and much older than Pocahontas.6 Smith is not the only psyche who was represented inaccurately by Disney in the film. Pocahontas is portrayed in the film as being a tall, beautiful, young adult who is free-spirited and passionate about nature. The most serious inaccuracy regarding Pocahontas is doubtlessly the fact that she is represented as a young adult, most like ly around the age of twenty. According to historical records, Pocahontas, at the time of Smiths arrival to the New World, was only ten years old.7 Additionally, the film depicts Pocahontas as being shocked and in awe of the English, however, evidence shows that at no point did Powhatan, Pocahontas, or any of their people look on the strangers with wide-mouthed awe or consider them gods.8 In fact, it is because of her young age that Townsend believes that Powhatan and his advisors were precisely under her influence when it came to policy decisions. Thus, her government agency as a young adult is historically inaccurate and was clearly put in place to support the imaginary love story between her and John Smith and make this fairy tale seem more believable.In Disneys Pocahontas, it is evident that Powhatan desires Pocahontas to link up a Native American. In fact, the film even depicts Powhatan selecting Kocoom,one of his muscularest warriors, to be Pocahontas future husband. Howeve r, Townsend shines light on the composition that Powhatan did not have a strong preference about who Pocahontas get married because Pocahontas mother lacked political significance.9 For this reason, any male child that Pocahontas was to bear would have not been placed in a seat of power, so it was not particularly necessary that she marry at all. As a result, she was given the choice of whom she wanted to marry. Interestingly, historical records indicate that Pocahontas married a man named Kocoom, around the age of twelve or thirteen and that she must have liked him very much indeed.10 So while the Disney film inaccurately portrayed Powhatans interest in Pocahontas love life, the film was able to successfully introduce Kocoom as a great warrior who had love for Pocahontas. Unfortunately, the film also inaccurately depicted a skirmish between Smith and Kocoom, which ultimately led to Kocooms death after being guesswork in the back. One thing historians are certain about is that Ko coom was the first husband of Pocahontas, however, within a few years Kocoom seems to have disappeared.11 The true story behind what exactly happened to Kocoom is up for debate, although many believe that he could have been killed in war, as he was a warrior for Powhatan. Another historical inaccuracy in Pocahontas is the portrayal of Powhatan as a person who practices monogamy. In fact, there are slight references in the film that Pocahontas mother had died, thus, making Powhatan a widow. While it is practicable that Pocahontas mother died, historians know that Powhatan practiced polygamy regardless, due to the numerous amount of children he had. Through this system, whole clans of brothers and sisters had an obvious shared interest in remaining unify and maintaining their familys power.12 In Townsends book, it is stated that in order to maintain rule over the tribes he conquered, Powhatan would simply marry a adult female of their royal family because a son conceived by her wou ld grow up with loyalty to both his father and to his mothers people.13 To be ensured of this loyalty, the children were to be raised by Powhatan himself.The film also portrayed the inaccurate idea that Powhatan was interested in killing all of the colonists. In fact, what Powhatan really wanted was to gain metal tools as well as technology in the form of guns, knives, hatchets and pans this is the reason why he made a deal John Smith.14 Townsend even included the fact that Powhatan was interested inestablishing kinship ties as a means of ensuring his expanding control.15 While Disney portrayed the story of Pocahontas inaccurately in many ways, almost of the historical information was displayed in a correct manner. At the beginning of the film, the women of the tribe can be seen working in the fields. This, from the study of history, is accurate because we know that every member of the tribe worked in the village, even the royal family.16 Women could be seen dividing into groups i n the morning some would work the field, some would pick up firewood, and others would touch Tuckahoe to make flour.17 The film also depicted the Native Americans telling of great stories that included the European conquests of parts of the New World. Being that Native American culture is passed down orally, historians can easily accept this idea that historical tales were told around campfires. Townsend explains that on an ordinary evening, Pocahontas might have sat in the flutter light of torches and the central firelistening to the older people tell stories.18 While historians will never know exactly what Pocahontas was taught about her ancestry, it is right to assume that there were many stories about the prior attempts of colonization that the coat-wearers had on their land. When analyzing the historical inaccuracies of the Disney film Pocahontas, it is important to keep in mind the audience that the film was created for. Disney undoubtedly created the film as a way to intro duce the concept of Native Americans to children. In fact, one could argue that the primary audience that this film was mean for is between the ages of six and nine. As a result, Disney would not want to create a film that portrays all Europeans as power-hungry and eager to conquer the world in violent ways. After all, American children are more than likely living on land that belonged to the Native Americans at one time. It would not be well-off for Disney to illustrate the people around these children as a group who is interested in stealing from others. Disney hopes to teach kids about the importance of giving to others and keeping those you love close. Thus, this is why we see John Smith and Pocahontas as attractive role models who fall madly in love. Pocahontas was created to be a fairytale that portrayed the idea of ultimate love and happiness, not to show the utter destruction that the Native Americans and their land suffered from after contact with the Europeans.One could argue that Pocahontas was created to depict a nonaggressive transfer of lands from the Native Americans tothe European colonists through mutual agreement, an example of how inaccuracies about the true occurrence still persist today. Disney attempted to develop a film that introduced the history of Native Americans and the New World to young children through a simplistic story with a happy ending. However, this could become dangerous if the children who view the film do not receive proper education about the subject and continuously base facts off the film. In general, making a fictitious representation of true events could pass as unobjectionable in order to make a story more interesting for film. In the case of Pocahontas, when a story works to make the group that was truly at fault look innocent, issues arise in terms of proper education and the reinforcement of unjust myths. The film, Pocahontas, was undoubtedly filled with many historical inaccuracies, which have caused confusi on about the realistic story of Pocahontas, but it did provide truthful, basic background information about Native American lifestyle at the time of the European conquest. I agree with Townsend that Pocahontas deserves for her true story to be known. However, I believe that creating a Disney film was not the best way to accomplish this, nor was it the goal of the company. Introducing the true interactions and agreements made between the Algonquian Native Americans and the European conquerors was not possible to do through an inspire Disney film due to the typical audience of the film and the simplistic, family-oriented themes that Disney incorporates. American History classes provided in American schools, particularly in areas that have a strong historical Native American presence, are doing a better job of teaching students about the truthful atrocities that the European settlers created for the Native Americans. It is clear, however, that pop-culture may not be at the same level of educating society.Works CitedTownsend, Camilla. Pocahontas and the Powhatan Dilemma. New York Hill and Wang, 2004.Pocahontas. Dir. Mike Gabriel. 1995. DVD.
Thursday, May 23, 2019
Tim OBriens The Things They Carried is a work of metafiction that manages to test fiction in its very nature through the chapter, How to Tell a True War Story. The blurred line between reality and the imagination is explored by the given bankers billthe endorser is alienated and forced to think, does the truth matter in a war story? This chapter alternates in narration between OBrien as a soldier and as a storyteller, examines the duplicity of whether story truth or happening truth is more vital, and explores the reactions which listeners and readers alike are to gather from these stories. OBrien opens the chapter with trinity powerful words which set the tone for his debate throughout the chapter, This is true. (OBrien 67). Narration of this chapter continues in first person where OBrien narrates a story, analyzes its validity, and moves on to tell other aspect of the story, taking it apart. This syntax makes the reader odour interrupted and disoriented.You have barely had time to absorb the heartbreaking story before OBrien switches gears, saying, A true war story is never moral (68). He sets qualifications for true war storiesabsolute and uncompromising allegiance to obscenity and evil (69) and manages to clarify in his next pause in storytelling warning that its difficult to separate what happened from what seemed to happen and acknowledges people perceive subjects differently and thus will tell the stories differently (71). The stories are told with beautiful figurative language-personification, imagery, war has the feelof a great ghostly fog, thick and permanent. There is no clarity. Everything swirls, and metaphor, in a tone where the reader is easily sucked in, only to be jarred awake with the factual and almost conversational tone of OBriens analyses.To put things in context, the previous chapter, Friends, mentions Rat kiley as the helpful medic for the dying friend. Dentist follows as a goodbye story to Curt Lemon. OBrien includes foreshadowing and post-acknowledgement of both characters surrounding the chapter to earn them together and create an undercurrent within the chapter where the readeris forced to see how the order, though on the surface seem random, is actually predetermined. The core theme that a true war story can non be factually believed is repeated multiple times throughout the chapter. One finds that true in war story does not mean the happening truth, but how well it relates to the appropriate emotional response, or story truth.The ultimate example of this is the heroic story of a man throwing himself onto a grenade to save his comrades. Whether or not anyone survives, Absolute occurrence is irrelevant. A thing may happen and by a total lie another thing may not happen and be truer than the truthThats a true story that never happened (83-84). The author leaves the reader with mixed emotions, where they may feel cheated from the happening truth, but they also experience the emotion the storyteller wants t hem to feelthe story reality that a true war story is never more or less war and there is always an deeper meaning to be discovered(85).
Wednesday, May 22, 2019
prolific and counterproductive doingss in the Work endue Employees within an organization washbowl either contribute positively or negatively towards their employing organizations overall success and effectiveness. The organizations that ream the most productive behaviors from their employees typically incorporate motivational and lead activities that encourage these behaviors (Jex & Britt, 2008). This paper will define counterproductive and productive behaviors and describe the impact those behaviors have on job performance and the overall performance of an organization.Counterproductive Behaviors logical system says that employees should want to do well in their jobs. But despite this logic, some employees do not. For various reasons employees will sometimes perform counterproductively towards their employers overall goals. Examples of these types of behaviors argon ineffective job performance, frequent absence from work, unsafe behavior, turnover, theft, violence, substance ab use, and sexual harassment (Jex & Britt, 2008). These types of behaviors can result in high costs for organizations.Detecting Counterproductive Behavior The best way employers can detect counterproductive behavior among employees is to perform routine performance appraisals. in that location are several methods for performing appraisals, including electronic, production data, and congenital appraisals. Each of these systems has pros and cons to it, and are only marginally effective (Jex & Britt, 2008). The truly best way to detect counterproductive behavior is to interact with employees and monitor their job satisfaction. What Causes Counterproductive Behavior?An employee who does not perform well in his or her job may do so for reasons like lack of ability, interruptions from other employees, or unequal task design (Jex & Britt, 2008). As well, poor job performance may result from elements in the organizational climate that provoke poor attitude, or, much little often, because of deep psychiatric problems (Jex & Britt, 2008). Once an employer detects a counterproductive behavior among his or her workforce he or she must humble to pinpoint the cause of the behavior. i way of doing this is through the attribution process, in which the mployees supervisor would evaluate an employees current performance against his or her past performance, his or her performance on specific tasks versus his or her overall performance, and his or her performance compared to other employees. By doing this the supervisor can try to determine the cause of the ineffective behavior and whether it is existence caused by internal (lack of ability or motivation, poor attitude, or psychiatric issues) or external (coworkers, poor task design, or lack of tools) factors (Jex & Britt, 2008). Responding to Counterproductive BehaviorOnce a behavior is detected and the cause of the behavior is analyzed, employers must decide how to respond to the behavior. The best first response is to hav e the employees manger discuss the counterproductive behavior with the employee in question (Jex & Britt, 2008) and determine whether the behavior can be corrected in order for the employee to retain his or her position. Once the discussion takes place the manager and employee can decide whether further training or coaching would encourage improved behavior or whether an Employee Assistance Program (EAP) would be safe (Jex & Britt, 2008).Of course, organizations would be best off to prevent counterproductive behaviors from occurring at all. This can be done by going to the effort and expense of hiring the right employees, possibly by utilizing the tools of selection programs to analyze potential employees skills and personalities. As well, employers should nurture their employees skills and abilities to encourage productive job performance. Finally, they should also offer employees frequent feedback and measurement of their performance to athletic supporter keep them on track wit h respect to organizational expectations (Jex & Britt, 2008).Productive Behaviors Despite the fact that some employees do not contribute positively to the organizations they work for, most employees try to perform their jobs to the best of their abilities and even go above and beyond their demandd duties at times. Examples of productive behaviors include positive job performance, organizational citizenship, creativity, and innovation (Jex & Britt, 2008). Assessing Productive Behaviors Organizational psychologists use various models to assess job performance.These models evaluate in-role (technical aspects of a given job) and extra-role (skills that transcend the specific content of a job such as communication skills and being a team player) performance by employees (Jex & Britt, 2008). These assessments allow managers to recognize productive employees and encourage and motivate them to continue in their efforts. Predictors of Productive Behaviors There are several methods that orga nizations can use when recruiting employees to predict whether candidates will contribute positively to their organization.These include general cognitive ability, level of job experience, and the personality feature of conscientiousness (Jex & Britt, 2008). By evaluating these predictors, organizations can save themselves time and money by hiring the right people who will contribute to organizational goals without excess coaching, training, or take up for reprimand. The Affects of Counterproductive and Productive Behaviors Clearly an organization will be affected by the employees that support it. Employees that contribute positively will help the organization bring towards its goals, and, if innovation and creativity are present, possibly even surpass their goals.On the other hand, employees who work counterproductively within an organization, will cost management time and may require additional effort to be spent on reputation management, recruitment, and training (Jex & Britt, 2008). Organizations would be best served to recruit employees with the most potential to work productively by analyzing their job experience, personality, and cognitive ability before offering an individual a job.References Jex, S. M. , & Britt, T. W. (2008). . Organizational Psychology. A Scientist-Practitioner Approach, Second Edition. Retrieved from https//ecampus. phoenix. edu/classroom/ic/classroom. aspx.
alveolar consonant assistants work closely with, and under the supervision of, dentists. (See the statement on dentists elsewhere in the Handbook. ) Assistants perform a variety of patient care, sureness, and laboratory duties. dental consonant assistants should not be confused with dental hygienists, who are licensed to perform different clinical tasks. (See the statement on dental hygienists elsewhere in the Handbook. ) alveolar consonant assistants sterilize and disinfect instruments and equipment, prepare and lay out the instruments and materials holdd to treat each patient, and obtain patients dental records.Assistants even out patients as comfortable as possible in the dental chair and prepare them for intervention. During dental procedures, assistants work alongside the dentist to provide assistance. They hand instruments and materials to dentists and dungeon patients mouths dry and clear by using suction or other devices. They in any case instruct patients on posto perative and general oral health care. Dental assistants may prepare materials for impressions and restorations, take dental x rays, and process x-ray film as directed by a dentist.They also may collide with sutures, apply topical anesthetics to gums or cavity-preventive agents to teeth, remove excess cement used in the filling process, and place rubber dams on the teeth to isolate them for single(a) treatment. any(prenominal) States are expanding dental assistants duties to include tasks such as coronal polishing and restorative dentistry functions for those assistants that meet specific training and experience have a bun in the ovenments. Dental assistants with laboratory duties make casts of the teeth and mouth from impressions, clean and polish removable appliances, and make temporary crowns.Those with touch duties schedule and confirm appointments, receive patients, keep treatment records, send bills, receive payments, and order dental supplies and materials. Work environm ent. Dental assistants work in a well-lighted, clean environment. Their work area usually is near the dental chair so that they can arrange instruments, materials, and medication and hand them to the dentist when needed. Dental assistants must wear gloves, masks, eyewear, and protective clothing to protect themselves and their patients from infectious diseases.Assistants also follow safety procedures to minimize the risks associated with the use of x-ray machines. About half of dental assistants have a 35- to 40-hour workweek. Most of the rest work part-time or have variable schedules. Depending on the hours of the dental office where they work, assistants may have to work on Saturdays or evenings. Some dental assistants hold multiple jobs by working at dental offices that are open on different days or scheduling their work at a second office around the hours they work at their primary office. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement About this section sticker to Top susta in to TopMany assistants learn their skills on the job, although an increasing add are trained in dental-assisting plans offered by community and junior colleges, trade schools, technical institutes, or the Armed Forces. Education and training. High school students interested in a career as a dental assistant should take courses in biology, chemistry, health, and office practices. For those wishing to pursue further education, the Commission on Dental Accreditation within the American Dental Association (ADA) approved 269 dental-assisting training programs in 2006.Programs include classroom, laboratory, and preclinical instruction in dental-assisting skills and related theory. In addition, students gain applicative experience in dental schools, clinics, or dental offices. Most programs take 1 year or less to get by and lead to a authentication or diploma. Two-year programs offered in community and junior colleges lead to an associate degree. All programs require a high school di ploma or its equivalent, and slightly require science or computer-related courses for admission.A number of private vocational schools offer 4- to 6-month courses in dental assisting, but the Commission on Dental Accreditation does not accredit these programs. A large number of dental assistants learn through on-the-job training. In these situations, the employing dentist or other dental assistants in the dental office teach the new assistant dental terminology, the names of the instruments, how to perform daily duties, how to interact with patients, and other things necessary to help keep the dental office running smoothly.While some things can be picked up easily, it may be a few months before new dental assistants are al iodin knowledgeable about their duties and comfortable doing all of their tasks without assistance. A period of on-the-job training is often required even for those that have completed a dental-assisting program or have some previous experience. Different denti sts may have their own styles of doing things that need to be learned before an assistant can be comfortable working with them. Office-specific information, such as where files are kept, will need to be learned at each new job.Also, as dental engineering changes, dental assistants need to stay familiar with the tools and procedures that they will be using or helping dentists to use. On-the-job training is often sufficient to keep assistants streetwise on these matters. Licensure. Most States regulate the duties that dental assistants are allowed to perform. Some States require licensure or registration, which may include passing a written or pragmatic examination. There are a variety of schools offering coursesapproximately 10 to 12 months in lengththat meet their States requirements.Other States require dental assistants to complete State-approved education courses of 4 to 12 hours in length. Some States offer registration of other dental assisting credentials with little or no e ducation required. Some States require continuing education to maintain licensure or registration. A few States allow dental assistants to perform any function delegated to them by the dentist. Individual States have adopted different standards for dental assistants who perform certain advanced duties. In some States, for example, dental assistants who perform radiological procedures must complete additional training.Completion of the Radiation Health and Safety examination offered by Dental Assisting National Board (DANB) meets the standards in more than 30 States. Some States require completion of a State-approved course in radiology as well. Certification and other qualifications. Certification is available through the Dental Assisting National Board (DANB) and is accept or required in more than 30 States. Certification is an acknowledgment of an assistants qualifications and professional competence and may be an asset when one is seeking employment.Candidates may qualify to tak e the DANB certification examination by graduating from an ADA-accredited dental assisting education program or by having 2 years of full-time, or 4 years of part-time, experience as a dental assistant. In addition, applicants must have current certification in cardiopulmonary resuscitation. For annual recertification, individuals must earn continuing education credits. Other organizations offer registration, most often at the State level. Dental assistants must be a second braces of hands for a dentist therefore, dentists look for people who are reliable, work well with others, and have good manual dexterity.Advancement. Without further education, advancement opportunities are limited. Some dental assistants become office managers, dental-assisting instructors, dental product sales representatives, or insurance claims processors for dental insurance companies. Others go back to school to become dental hygienists. For many, this entry-level personal credit line provides basic train ing and experience and serves as a steppingstone to more highly skilled and higher paying jobs. Employment About this section Back to Top Back to Top Dental assistants held about 280,000 jobs in 2006.Almost all jobs for dental assistants were in offices of dentists. A small number of jobs were in the Federal, State, and local governments or in offices of physicians. About 35 percent of dental assistants worked part time, sometimes in more than one dental office. Job Outlook About this section Back to Top Back to Top Employment is judge to increase much faster than average job prospects are expected to be excellent. Employment change. Employment is expected to dumbfound 29 percent from 2006 to 2016, which is much faster than the average for all occupations.In fact, dental assistants are expected to be among the fastest growing occupations over the 2006-16 swelling period. Population growth, greater retention of natural teeth by middle-aged and older people, and an increased focus on preventative dental care for young generations will fuel demand for dental services. Older dentists, who have been less likely to employ assistants or have employed fewer, are leaving the occupation and will be replaced by recent graduates, who are more likely to use one or more assistants.In addition, as dentists workloads increase, they are expected to hire more assistants to perform routine tasks, so that they may devote their own time to more complex procedures. Job prospects. Job prospects for dental assistants should be excellent. In addition to job openings due to employment growth, numerous job openings will arise out of the need to replace assistants who transfer to other occupations, retire, or leave for other reasons. Many opportunities for entry-level positions offer on-the-job training, but some dentists prefer to hire experienced assistants or those who have completed a dental-assisting program.
Tuesday, May 21, 2019
Issues that relate to aegis argon of gravest whizz concern to all nations (Meyer, 2007). The national shelter and knowledgeable falsifying are some of the sectors that are allocated lump sums of resources in the budgetary allocation (Meyer, 2007). Such allocations are in line with the perceived importance that the area of defense has. The united maintains as a demesne is no stranger to conflict and is wholeness of the country that has been involved in external conflict for wide periods of condemnation both(prenominal) in the 20th and 21st century (Meyer, 2007).The politics involved in the security are some of the most interesting and widely covered happenings in the US press. Financial actor is seen to go in line with military machine power in that countries that receive the financial king endure to develop their military capabilities and the same can be said of countries that have military abilities. National security is an area of key concern and indeed in that respect is lots of secrecy involved in its dealings (Meyer, 2007). The nature of the deals often require utmost confidentiality from the parties involved and therefore some transactions happen in well defined and approved channels.The military association are developed with time and may be extended to association in other areas since its better to develop good relations with persons with security details that could be detrimental to the country if leaked (Meyer, 2007). The military world has been developing with technological improvements and the military equipments currently beingnessness used are characterized by to a greater extent true statement and immense throughput (Verkuil, 2007). These two factors are but a few of the reflections in choosing a partner or a withdrawor that forgeting help in developing certain aspects of the security system (Verkuil, 2007).It therefore does non come as a amazement that military procural procedures and attendes have considerabl e controversy since hoi polloi have varied views on dexterity and security implications (Verkuil, 2007). This research paper analyses the issues involved in the air force turn off tender to build tankers betwixt Boeing and Northrop Grumman with the aim of highlighting key issues involved in addressing security searing details. Background Boeing KC-767 is mavin of the military aerial fueling strategy that had been developed by Boeing 767-200 (CBS countersign, 2008).The tanker was designated KC-767 after it was selected by the US airforce to re countersink the KC-135s. However, in December of 2003, the necessitate was frozen after corruption allegation on the command process were forwarded. The development of the range is said to have terms Boeing over $ 1 Billion as the project was based on the assumption that the US airforce give be the chief consumer. forever since the halt of the project the Italian and the Chinese government have each ordered a unexclusive figu re of these tankers.To address the KC-X competition the Boeing offered the 7627-200 Long range freighter which is based on the KC-767 (Online News time of day, 2008). However, the Department of defense selected KC-30 which was developed by Northrop Grumman (CBS News, 2008). The Boeing come with on the 11th March 2008 submitted a protest on the determinations do by the airforce, the United States accountability business leader upheld their protests and in so doing the status of the KC-45A was placed in dubiousness and therefore the Boeing company was again in position to bid for the contract (CBS News, 2008).This was no to be since the US government in September 2008 terminated all bids on the KC-X (CBS News, 2008). In March 2002, the US airforce selected Boeings KC-767 on the grounds that it had drawly demonstrated the abilities to meet their requirements. The United States Airforce ( airforce) in their borrowing statement brought turn up four points that they cited as bein g behind their decision (CBS News, 2008). The Boeings design was designated KC-767A and was include in DODs 2004 model designation report. Approximately 100 KC-767 tankers were leased from Boeing for the air refuel program. in time though the refueling program was in place in many countries in the US, many had questions about its effectiveness and cost implications especially the idea of leasing crafts which may never have any emptor once the lease period was over. This argument brought forward by senator McCain was just countered by the tot up of US allies who were more than willing to buy their used crafts (CBS News, 2008). The congressional budget office was next in line as they criticized the budget stressing on its fiscal irresponsibility (United States Government Accountability Office, 2008).This led to the tangency of a deal where the state would buy 80 KC-767 and lease twenty (United States Government Accountability Office, 2008). However, in December of 2003, the penta gon announced that the project had to be frozen due to a corruption allegation brought against one of its former staffer (CBS News, 2008). Furthermore, documentations that proved that the A330 based tankers were more suited to the task specifications of the airforce were more cost effective relative to Boeing tankers were institute (CBS News, 2008).The scandal led to the sentencing of the culprit who pleaded guilty to corruptions and led to the resignation of Boeings CEO. Donald Rumsfeld in 2006 announced the cancellation of the KC-767A leases as a measure aimed at cutting the be and a redefinition of the USAF mission (United States Government Accountability Office, 2008). The defense secretary further stated that the move will not in any way affects the mission of the KC-767A as the upgrade of the KC-135s fleets will help in moving towards the goals (United States Government Accountability Office, 2008).However, the development did no affect the relationships amidst Boeing and i ts other customers. The development were however short lived and Boeing and Northrop were soon back in the ring fighting for a immense defense contract. The understructure of Boeings arguments was that the KC-30 was more versatile and had a large furl capacity than the KC-135 that were being used by the airforce. The KC-135 was developed by Boeing who were bidding for an airforce contract against their nemesis Northrop Grumman .The latter won this round of struggle as the departments of defense announced that it has won the tender to procure 179 new KC-45A tankers (Online News Hour, 2008). The Boeing company about immediately took to the Government Accountability Office and filed a protests claiming the evaluation of its KC-30 was unfair (Online News Hour, 2008). Boeing further claimed that its refueling tanker could easily be reconverted to a passenger two-dimensional compared to Northrops version as shown in the Air forces post decision briefing.According to Boeings vice pres ident they had more strengths than their competitors was all he heard from the post decision briefing. Boeings protests led to a review of the extract process by the accountability office which forced Northrop to freeze the project which it had already allocated $ 35 one thousand thousand (Online News Hour, 2008). Northrop Grumman executives are on the other hand highlighting the irresponsibility involved in freezing a critical project to the development of the military for expensive lobbying in the congress that will pauperizationfully lead to a change of the decisions made by the airforce (Online News Hour, 2008).Northrop Grumman executives further claim the decision is ironic since they put their best efforts in ensuring that the airforce receives a products that they consider the best in consideration of the design (Online News Hour, 2008). They are pushing for the macrocosm knowledge of the facts of what they represents and what they are not. The congress was divided shre wdly on this issue and so was the general public. Boeing supporters claim that the Northrop Grumman design was a basic passenger airbus plane (Online News Hour, 2008).A Kansas congress man was cited claiming that the decisions made by the airforce was a bad one as the airforce as it has bend backwards to deal with a French company (Online News Hour, 2008). Boeings die hards near its main production facility claimed that it is the only true tanker manufacturers and a mistake had been made (Online News Hour, 2008). A Washington senator supported this point of view and claimed that offering a military contract to a foreign company was suicidal and would incapacitate Americas ability to develop their own fleet if they should ever pull out of the deal (Online News Hour, 2008).An aluminium state senators is of a distinguishable view and approached the subject from a resource allocations view point (Online News Hour, 2008). sight near Northrop are determine to benefit more that those n ear the Boeing plants and therefore there senators have opinions that unwrap their satisfaction or dissatisfaction with the resource allocations (Online News Hour, 2008). She further states that there have to be losers and winner each way (Online News Hour, 2008).The Boeing group further accuse the airforce of a change in controversy in order to accommodate the design put up by Northrop Grumman so as to fancy two bidders are present (Online News Hour, 2008). plain though many are of the view that the airforce was trying to lock out Boeing due to the scandals it previously had, Boeing executives were of the view that was not the case as the specifications that were asked by the airforce were changed considerably to see to it Northrop was in the race (Online News Hour, 2008).They further claim that the large coat tanker proposed by the Northrop was a liability and only countries not interested in their taxi ship canal would allow for such(prenominal) aircrafts. The Northrop g roup however counter this argument by stating that their design is more advanced and has advantages that are yet to be seen (Online News Hour, 2008). Issues Boeing is one of the worlds best known manufactures of aircrafts and so is Northrop Grumman who are the manufacturers of the airbus (Online News Hour, 2008).These are two top brands who are obviously competing in other areas of backup and therefore any decision that involve them is bound to raise considerable heat. It should b mention that both are American companies though Northrop Grumman is partly owned by a French company. The nature of the contract which involves the security of America as a nation is a proposition of national concern as it involves the development of structures that could ensure the growth of security systems. Boeing and Grumman being business structures, such a big contract will obviously attract the interest of stakeholders from both sides.There are a number of key issues that have been brought out by the airforce contracts which include i. Politics Military contracts are a matter of public concern since it is in place to protect the public, the resources used in the military contracts are derived from taxpayers and therefore the fai entice of such projects will be a waste of taxpayers money (Meyer, 2007). When McCain questioned the cost effectiveness in leasing planes that would otherwise have no values when their lease period was over his motive as the senator of Alabama was to ensure that the taxpayers money is channeled to useful projects.Furthermore, it is quite clear that the politicians have the ability to shoot down potentially useful deals due to what Northrop Grumman executives refer to as expensive lobbying. Politics is not forever and a day objective for there are situations where the stakes involved are shielded from the public and though the politics and viewpoints will be developed to suit the public, the real reasons are often personal (Meyer, 2007). The inclusi on of politics in such cases therefore has both advantages and disadvantages and should be weighed carefully.Military procurance just like any other public procurement scheme is prone to corruption, this was the case in the original contract that was brought to an end by Rumsfeld in 2006. Moreover, the big money involved in military procurement processes act as a inseparable catalysts for corruption, therefore there is need to come up with a robust self regulated systems that will ensure that such unethical practices are not in anyway included in the procurement process, the congress thence comes into the picture (Meyer, 2007).However, the political system is not known for its objectivity. In the cases, some of the reasons brought out against Northrop Grumman are flimsy and lack in objectivity. The fact that there will be lobbying is a clear sign that there will be loss in objectivity thus the decision will tend to favor groups that are be able to garner adequacy political suppo rt in the congress. Furthermore, the political system is one of the most corrupt system there is and the rationale in placing such a system to guard against corruption is questionable. ii.Security Military procurement is a security critical matter (Meyer, 2007). The military is in place to ensure that the US is protected against its external enemies (Meyer, 2007). The seriousness with which the equipment tendering process is treated and the keen eye that the media watches the unfolding of such events relay the importance placed on the military by the American people. The US is traditionally a fighting nation and the effectiveness of its military and equipments is one of the factors that has cemented its place as a world power.Military activities require high levels of secrecy (Meyer, 2007). There is need to come up with effective equipments that can be used in varied situations. It should be noted that the arguments brought forward by the executives from both sides are centered arou nd the superiority of their products or the weaknesses of their opposite. The need for accuracy and well developed products that have the required personality are some of the considerations that led to the two big companies making it to the final stage.The two companies are multinationals that have developed their brands all over the globe. It is noteworthy that when the US defense secretary cancels Boeings leases other nations still seek their products and are continues seeking the products that have been labelled cost ineffective due to the repute associated with their brand name. The importance of the security system is seen in the number of avenues and legislative systems that have been put in place to ensure that the process is done in a just manner (Krishnan, 2008).When the airforce declares that Northrop Grumman had won the bid for the airforce tankers, Boeing seeks redress through a different avenue Public accountability office. The office looks at their complaints and dec ides to freeze the process. It should be noted that it was the same office that had early in the decades frozen a billion dollar Boeing contract due to corruption charges. Even though there are systems put in place to ensure proper procedures in procurement of services and services, they can be outdone easily (Krishnan, 2008).The corruption allegations made in the initial Boeing contracts are a clear case where the protocols were overridden and it only came to realization a couple of months after the contracts had been signed. Furthermore, the fact that is was later found out that a different design could meet the specifications made by the airforce with reduced costs clearly show that even though the guidelines are put in place they are seldom followed thus the need for a system or authority that will follow up on the recommendations and processes to ensure that they conform to the laid out guidelines.Some politicians have argued that the French affiliation of the airbus manufactur er is in itself a security risk and therefore a purely American company should be contracted. However, such a contracting systems will obviously lock out other capable companies and therefore ingest about questions on the integrity of the bidding process. America has prided itself as being a liberalized nation, putting up measures that will lock out other qualified members on the basis of the compositions of its investors is contrary to the spirit of liberalization.Furthermore, being involved with a company that has partnered with a success story in Europe shields the tanker project from American economic downtimes though it effectively ensures that the project is affected by the happening in Europe. It is kafkaesque to lobby for Boeing on the basis of confidentiality a company that has already shown traces of corruption cannot be trusted and incomplete can a company that is yet to prove its worth in the military sector.Therefore, system should be put in place to ensure that the projects are monitored and compared to some given standards if either is to be awarded the contract. iii. stability The US is the father of capitalism and is therefore a country that is characterized by intense competition between industry players who will always be on the look for additional finances that will ensure their development into the future (Verkuil, 2007). On the day it was reported that Northrop Grumman had won the military contracts its share prices rose by over 20 cents and Boeings shares fell by a couple of cents (CBS News, 2008).Note, the development in the contract procurement were being watched by investors who will then make their decisions on which company to invest in. Even though the large money involved in the transactions may be enough to lure investors into channeling their resources to a particular company, the reputation involved in being a company contracted with one of the worlds best airforce to develop its aircraft tankers is enough to cause signific ant changes in the companys share index. Being a capitalistic economy where entities gain at the expense of others, Boeing is bound to feel the pinch.The situation is made worse by the consideration that Boeing has a well developed reputation and therefore failure to win a contract from a partner that it has associated with for a long time may be taken by the investors and its consumers in the wrong light. It may imply that the partner does not trust its capacity to develop superiors products or has doubts on its potential to remain productive. To bring the idea of reputation into perspective, many are of the notion that the corruptions charges brought against Boeing may have affected its chances of successfully bidding for the contract (Verkuil, 2007).This holds considerable weight in that the military is not all about facilities but also reputation. The American people and its enemies will always keep a keen eye on the military and any transactions conducted with a partner who is proved to be corrupt will dent on its integrity thus its reputation. Conclusion Awarding a contract to a company to deliver services that are of public interest is a complex process and will always involve the media and many other systems that have been put in place to ensure the safety of the public.Individual good and interest will always be central in the arguments brought forward by most people, this is more pronounced if the contract will significantly affect many people. It is therefore upon the government and the social systems to ensure that the systems put in place to ensure effectiveness of the bidding process are functioning properly and are robust enough to deal with the dynamism associated with such processes. If need be, changes must(prenominal) be instituted to ensure that the system are functioning.The products delivered must measure up to some predetermined standards to ensure quality and accountability. These measures and other quality management measures if well integrated into the bidding and implementation of contracts that are of public interest will ensure that the public benefits in the best possible way. Word Count 3271 Reference List CBS News (2008). Boeing Spurned On colossal Air Force Contract. Retrieved 13 October 2008 from Krishnan, A. (2008). War as Business Technological Change and Military swear out Contracting. Aldershot Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. Meyer, J. (2007). Working in a War Zone Military Contractors. New York The Rosen Publishing Group. Online News Hour (2008). Boeing, Northrop Grumman Clash Over Tanker Contract. Retrieved 13 October 2008 from United States Government Accountability Office (2008). Statement Regarding the play Protest Decision Resolving the Aerial Refueling Tanker Protest by The Boeing Company. Retrieved 13 October 2008 from Verkuil, R. (2007). Outsourcing reign Why Privatization of Government Functions Threatens Democracy and what We Can Do about it. New York Cambridge University Press.
Monday, May 20, 2019
Social Criticism in William Flakes The lamp chimney Sweeper The Chimney Sweeper by William Blake criticizes minor labor and especially community that jibes the chel arns misery that chooses to look away and it reveals the convert of the mental state of those infantren who were forced to do such cruel work at the age of foursome to nine years. It shows the change from an innocent electric s deportr that trances of its rescue to the pincer that has accepted its fate. Those lives seem to oppose for each integrity other(a) and yet if peerless reads the poems carefully, one rotter see that they have a lot in common too.The poem was inspired by the first laws that were supposed to make the chimney sweepers behavior wear out, exactly since those laws were loosely enforced Blake needed to draw attention to their horrible situation and wanted society to be alive(predicate) of this problem to reinforce the existing and make new laws. Blake shows the life of cardinal dif ferent chimney sweepers, one in truth naive child, Tom, that somehow managed to keep some of its childlike innocence and one that he calls experienced that sees his life more realistic and shows who is to blame for this situation. wholeness understructure find many phrases that underline Toms innocence passim the mom plainly the tokens of the hair that is compared to a lambs wool and the White hair confirm that first impression one use ups when reading the poem. light Toms dream is other symbol of his innocence. He dreams of an nonsuch that comes to rescue him with a gleaming key. In Gardeners book Flakes Innocence and Experience Retraced he comments on the dream solely as well has a very interesting theory of the black coffins meaning.The gowned figure of Christ appears in the illustrations to all these poems, and in The Chimney Sweeper the same gowned figure releases the sys from the coffin of black, which epitomizes the horizontal flues (the size of a childs coffin) whi ch killed so many infant sweeps (Gardner 66). His theory is that the black coffins symbolize the small chimneys where many children got suck and suffocated. Which is a commonsensical theory chimneys that were built at that time were made very narrow and many children werent able to get divulge of them anymore.Here Blake criticizes that many children had to Jeopardize their life to do their Job. At first there was a abject attempt to regulate this children were sweeping the chimneys thou clothes so the clothes could non get caught and shut away the children in a chimney but this solution was inhumane as it takes away the childs dignity and a nonher point that had to be called to attention at that time The childrens rights as they did not have any. And it wasnt in force(p) about(predicate) the childrens rights but also without clothes the children hurt their knees and elbows very a lot.This was even worse because of the infections through the porn as chimney sweepers were was hed rarely and were sleeping on the soot they swept during the day and in a black and very narrow room with all the other chimney sweepers. Blake also criticizes that those children are in complete darkness most of their time. They rose in the dark (line 21), spend their day sweeping chimneys and when they were through with(p) they would walk from door to door asking for more work and then got back into their black board to go to sleep.So this stands in contrast with the life little Tom dreams of where he is universe washed, can numeration free and enjoy his life as children should be able to do. And washed in the river, and shine in the sun/ then naked and white, all their bags left behind/ they rise upon the clouds and sport in the wind (line 6-18). Toms dream creates a bit of hope in the reader that Tom might be able to be adroit and consoled by this dream but this hope is dismissed at the end of the poem.Though Tom is warmly and happy inside, the cold morning shows that in realness the angels consolation is not much of a consolation and the reader knows that even the older boys wait on that the hair cannot be spoiled if it is shorn off would not help much either. Also those words like dark and harm create a deadly atmosphere and through the broken rhyme scheme the reader is thrown back into Toms dark reality. So at the ND the reader does not have a choice but to deal with this reality and think about the boys situation which is what Blake intended The conditions of the places the children slept in were another point that Blake criticizes. He sleeps in soot instead of the early mothers bosom or lap. But practiced as the mother shields the child from the sharp beams of theologys love until he is able to bear them alone, so the sweepers soot is ironically his shield (Inurn 19). As this quote states the child should sleep on the mothers lap instead of soot that a child is supposed to be love and taken care of but instead it is interchange and surr ounded by luckless.I disagree with the second controversy that the mother shields a child from the intense beams of divinity fudge and what it is compared to the reason why I disagree is that Blake was not a very religious person for his time and I doubt that he meant to draw a conjunctive between the mothers loving shield to an ironic shield of soot. This interpretation is going away too much from the original line of reasoning and there is too much imagination in this thought. Blake criticizes that children were so young when they were change to be chimney sweepers that they couldnt talk properly yet.The reason for this was that the chimneys were so narrow an older child would not be able to crawl through. This fact is shown very clear in the first line of both poems but the picture gets much more distinct in the second and third line where the child says he could not even pronounce the word sweep and says blazon out instead. Those children were too young to be aware of thei r situation until they were enslaved, and when they did understand it, they would cry like Tom when he gets his hair cut.The precisely consolation the other older boys can give is that now his beautiful white hair cannot e spoiled. But if this is a ingenuous consolation at all is up to the reader to decide. Blake does not indicate whether he agrees or disagrees. From the mature or maybe the experienced point of view, it is in fact no consolation at all but little Tom seems to believe it is a equitable one. When my mother died I was very young, and my father sold me while yet my tongue could scarcely cry N. pep Weep Weep (line 1-3). But the M. pepWeep Weep does have two meanings. The first one I Just explained but it also suggests that even the innocent child is suffering and shows it through weeping. Though he does not consciously realize it yet, subconsciously he is weeping and not Warm and happy at all. The unidentified second child uses this sentence again, but here it does not symbolize the childs inability to speak but the experience that is causing the child to weep. Another point of indirect criticism is that chimney sweepers were punished if they disobeyed.One is not told directly what was to happen to the children if they did not do as they were told one only knows that the child is going to be harmed if the work is not done so if all do their duty they need not headache harm (line 24). This criticizes the way those children were treated. Some sweepers had to climb up a chimney while the fire was burning in the fire place if the child refused they were forced by fire, slaps, prodding with poles, or by the pricking of the bottoms of their feet with pins (Inurn 17).Blake also criticizes the church, graven image and society. In the Songs of Innocence, little Toms dream can be seen as a sign from God or from heaven and one can view it as a metaphorical representation of the church. So it implies that the chimney sweepers believe in the church and G ods help Just as they believe in the dreams message. This meaner the churchs help is compared to the angels consolation that if Tom was a good boy/ hed have God for his father and never want Joy (line 19-20) which is no consolation.This is Flakes indirect criticism of the church that does not help those children and of God. He raises the question of how God can be truly good if he sees this injustice and does not act to prevent those children from being harmed. And Punter explains in this book about the Songs that Blake used to Associate the angelic with goodness but increasingly as the years went by he connected it with a mind of hypocritical self-righteousness (Punter 17) so the angel in Toms dream would not be a good sign but a symbol for a hypocritical society.In the second poem the criticism goes on as the question is raised where the parents of the chimney sweeper are, since it is their duty to take care of their child but they left the child and went to pray to God instead. And there is more criticism of the parents The child asks if they sold it because it was happy and if it is its time to suffer now because it has been happy once? This question is meant for the reader to think about if it can e right that a child has been sold because it did not show how much it is suffering. In the second poem, the reader gets to know that the child is not allowed to go to church to pray to God.Blake criticizes that children were outcasts of society Just because of their profession and there are records showing that chimney sweepers were thrown out of church if they tried to participate mass even if they were wearing the right clothes, which only a few chimney sweepers were provided with in the first place. As an instance in what a dash these myopic children are treated, I remember n anecdote of a little band of them, who had the destiny to be supplied with Sundays clothing their faces, however, proclaimed them chimney-sweepers.Curiosity, or information that th e churches were houses of God, carried them within the gates of a church but alas They were operate out by the beadle, with this taunt, What have chimney sweepers to do in a perform? (Inurn 18). Since there were many families that were so poor at the time the poem was written that they could not pass on and sold them in order to prevent them from starvation. This is what Gardner meaner n this quotation The Gap between the respectable and the non-respectable poor was consequently widening (Gardner xvii).The two Songs show some contrast but as one can see in the criticism there are many symbols that show up in both poems. Little Toms white hair that is shorn off shows his innocence that is being taken away from him yet the obscure child in the second poem is referred to as a little black thing, the nameless child is almost seems black among the white snow, which shows that his innocence already is lost and that experience has given him the black affectation that makes him stand out from civilization. Nowadays one could also compare this to black people being outcasts of society in America that were sold Just like the chimney sweepers.And the word sold is meant to stand out in the second line. Just like the black slaves in America those children were sold to a mortify to be sweeps. This would have been criticized a lot more nowadays as slavery still was quite a common back then when the poem was written. The child in the second poem does not have a name and there are several reasons for that Blake did not want to focus on one child and its situation but show that in act there are many children and therefore the child doesnt have a gender so it doesnt represent Just boys or Just girls as they were treated the same.This is a contrast to the first chimney sweeper Tom, who has a name, emotions and feelings so one can sympathies with him. The second childs experience is not presented as clearly as Toms innocence but through its uncover vision of its destiny a nd the way it accepts its fate. The child knows it has been wronged by its parents who were supposed to take good care of it and sold it like and object but it also has been ranged by God and the priest and the King who make up a heaven of our misery (line 11). They try to pretend its a perfect domain of a function and do not look at those children too closely, but since they make up a heaven (line 13) a wear world, they clearly must be aware of the misery around them. Also Blake is playing with the readers conscience in the Songs of Innocence the child says that he is sweeping your chimney. The reader is included and addressed directly this implicates the reader in the circle of exploration (Seasick 53). This is also shown in Garners book Alone among all the voices of Innocence, the chimney sweeper speaks from unrelieved pauperism and an enforced self-reliance his counterpart in Experience speaks from familiar exploration.The two sweeps state a condition, the dissimilitude be ing in relationships, as the illustrations signify (52). Blake does not speak for himself in his poems, he creates a cashier that states his thoughts this way Blake can show two different states of mind or point of views without disagreeing with his previous statement and does not become unbelievable through those contradictions that may result from this. Blake believes that one cant separate those states (innocence and experience) from each other, they Just show the same world from a different perspective.Flakes poems presents a contradiction between the states of innocence and experience, two phases through which all people must pass. It shows the untainted world of an innocent child against the mature world of experience and corruption. Tom is both innocent and yet somehow experienced too because of his hard work. When he is conscious he is innocent but in his dreams even though they are very good and innocent, he still knows that it is to the right way he is being treated, bec ause he is dreaming of a better life He child must indulge in symbolic compensations for his real lot (Adams 261). One can also see this in the contrast in the sentence that If hed be a good boy. (line 19). Being a good boy meaner doing his duty here. The contrast in this sentence is that in reality people are supposed to be good and do their duty, but in this case to do his duty would mean that he hurts himself and maybe dies trying to be good. Blake does not ally with one special(prenominal) point of view since all humans have to go through both tastes.In the Songs of Innocence life is seen through the childs eyes thus showing the innocence but in the Songs of Experience it almost appears as if it is seen through the eyes of an adult, showing that children cant stay innocent in those conditions. It shows that sooner or later the child cant believe in those promises the angel gives in the Songs of Innocence and that it bequeath lose its innocence. This innocence Can be both imaginative and pathetic at the same time imaginative because the innocent child can transcend his outer environment ND pathetic because the child so obviously suffers from that outward existence Adam 206 This reference point will underline my statement that even though the child seems innocent, it is affected by the horrible things that are happening to the child. It also shows the conflict that the reader has to deal with does he believe in Toms innocence and hopes everything will work out for Tom so he can stay happy and warm or does the reader believe that the child cannot be this naive and even try to believe the angel. In my faith the reader cannot believe in Toms happy ending as he knows too much.As we read the mom, academic term beneath the chimney newly swept in Golden Square, our discomfort arises not from the necessity of chimney-sweeping, but from the sense that a child may belong so little to the living that he is driven for necessary solace to a posthumous explora tion (Gardner 52). Gardner shows that the reader will have to decide what he believes in the end. Works Cited Primary Sources Beer, John. Romanticism, Revolution and Language. The Fate of the Word from Samuel Johnson to George Eliot. Cambridge Cambridge University Press, 2009. Bentley, Gerald Decades, Jar. William Blake. The Critical Heritage. London and Boston